General and Introductory Materials
Part 1 Introduction

Chapter d18 Glossary of Liturgical Terms

Glossary:  Richstatter

Color Key

Prefatory Note

Glossary:  Catechism of the Catholic Church

Sources

Glossary

A - B - C - DE - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M 

N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z

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Color Key

Words helpful in the study of liturgy
Words every master's level student should know
Words everyone studying Initiation should know
Words everyone studying Eucharist should know
Words everyone studying Reconciliation should know
Words everyone studying the Liturgical Year should know

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Prefatory Note

The study of liturgy and sacramental theology presumes a working knowledge of certain terms and abbreviations which are not always a part of an educated person's working English vocabulary. This glossary has been prepared to help a student of liturgy and sacramental theology read and study sacramental literature and to gradually acquire this vocabulary. As in learning any language, vocabulary is absorbed by hearing, use, and reading; this hearing and using must often be supplemented by direct study and memorization.

Entries followed by (basic) are items I expect all students of liturgy and sacramental theology to recognize, know and use. Entries followed by (initiation) are items I expect students in an initiation course to know; entries followed by (eucharist) I expect students in a eucharist course to know; entries followed by (reconciliation) I expect students in a reconciliation course to know. Items marked with * indicate that the item can be found in its alphabetical place elsewhere in this glossary.

This glossary has been prepared to assist you in your reading and study. If there are additional words which you think students would want included in this glossary, please bring this to my attention. Your help in improving, correcting and updating this glossary would also be appreciated.

The English edition of the Catechism of the Catholic Church also contains a Glossary and Index Analyticus ©2000, United States Catholic Conference, Inc.

A glossary of Common Liturgical Terms is also available from Diocese of Greensburg, (based on Dennis C. Smolarski's Liturgical Literacy, Paulist Press, 1990).

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Glossary:  Catechism of the Catholic Church

Second Edition 1997

Even before the promulgation of the Catechism of the Catholic Church, a Glossary had been proposed to provide assistance to those who would use the new Catechism. This Glossary has been prepared by Archbishop William J. Levada, who served as a member of the Editorial Committee of the Special Commission of the Holy See for the Catechism of the Catholic Church. It has been reviewed by the NCCB ad hoc Committee to Oversee the Use of the Catechism, as well as by the chairman and staff of the NCCB Committee on Doctrine.  http://www.usccb.org/catechism/text/glossary.htm

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- A -

AAS: Acta Apostolicae Sedis. The official bulletin of the Holy See. Before 1908 the title was Acta Sanctae Sedis. Used to promulgate law.

ACCIDENT   In scholasticism, an accident is that which has no independent and self-sufficient existence, but exists only in another being, a substance or another accident, e.g., a cat is quick or yellow.  See: Substance.   

AMBRY: The place where the holy oils are kept.

ANABATIC:  [moving upward]  The "praise/worship" dimension, the "what we give to God" dimension of liturgy and sacraments.  see:  Constitution on the Liturgy #59:  "The purpose of the sacraments is to ... give worship to God."  Contrasted with KATABATIC [moving downward]  The "what God gives us" dimension of the sacraments.  Prior to the Second Vatican Council, the emphasis was almost exclusively on the katabatic movement:  The Sacraments are "instituted by Christ to give grace."

Metaphor:  As children grow and develop, their frequent "Give me that..." and "I want this..." should mature into an appreciation of the parents' love and generosity.  The katabatic "give me" embraces the anabatic "thank you; I love you."   Good parents help their children to see that Christmas, for example, is not only a time for receiving, but a time for giving out of gratitude for the things they have received.  The good catechist, in a similar way, helps the student grow from simply asking God for things to thanking God for simply being a bountiful, loving God.

This Anabatic movement is a prime characteristic of Franciscan prayer and Franciscan liturgical style.  St. Francis' love of creation led him to praise the Creator.  Francis was uniquely aware that creation finds its culmination in Christ Jesus. Jesus is the plan for humankind, he is the revelation of the Father, he is the praise of the Father.  The prayers of Francis are prayers of praise. Francis gives praise in the Spirit to the Father for the wonders worked in Jesus. Our praise of the Father is essentially this: allowing the Spirit to incorporate us into Christ. Our franciscan liturgical style is therefore characterized by this Spirit-filled praise of the Father and by the depth and intensity of our conformity to the poor Christ. Our liturgies should never become weighed down with heavy didactic verbiage or ponderous confessions of guilt and unworthiness. Rather they should be praise-filled: filled with the loving, spontaneous praise of children playing before their loving Father. Praise is the icon of franciscan living."  [From:  Franciscans At Prayer]

ANAMNESIS   Greek word for "remembrance"  "memorial" and "proclamation" [Hebrew: zikkeron].   For example:  "Do this in my remembrance."  or  "Do this in memory of me." (remembrance, memory = anamnesis)  The word can be found in Luke 22:19 and 1Cor 11:24, 25. [Strong's Greek Lexicon:  3 364]   However, "anamnesis"  denotes no mere "calling to mind" or "thinking about" a past event.   Anamnesis is not simply "going back and remembering now something done in the past".  It is certainly not a repetition or a re-presentation of a past act in the present; it is not a "doing it over again."  Anamnesis is a "remembering" which brings the person remembering into contact (presence) with the inner core meaning -- the mystery / mysterion / sacrament -- of a event which happened "once and for all" in the past.   For my most recent notes on anamnesis see Chapter d315 Chauvet, #6 Anamnesis   

The Second Vatican Council described anamnesis in the Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy, #102:  "Recalling thus the mysteries of redemption, the Church opens to the faithful the riches of the Lord's powers and merits, so that these are in some way made present in every age in order that the faithful may lay hold on them and be filled with saving grace."   This was a very "new" theological concept at the time.  The concept was developed by Fr. Odo Casel O.S.B. (1886-1948) a monk of Maria Laach.  His key text: The Mystery of Christian Worship.  My doctor father and mentor Pierre-Marie Gy, O.P. said that Odo Casel was perhaps the major thinker behind the sacramental theology of the 20th century.

"The liturgical celebration makes present the spiritual efficacy of a moment that in its material anecdotal form is historically past." [Nocent, The Liturgical Year, vol. III, p 5]

Maxwell Johnson, speaks of anamnesis:   "Christmas, then, is not about baby Jesus in the manger 'back there and then' but about our baptismal birth in the adult Christ as He is born anew in us through the Spirit who brings the 'glad tidings' of salvation -- the one salvation -- to us now. Easter and Pentecost are about our death and resurrection in Christ, our Passover from death to life in his Passover, through water and the Holy Spirit in baptism. Lent is about our annual retreat, our annual re-entry into the Catechumenate and order of penitents in order to reflect on, affirm, remember, and re-claim that baptism. And Advent is about our hope for fulfillment in Christ when 'he will come to judge the living and the dead,' a hope solidly grounded in the baptism Spirit-gift who is the very down payment and seal of our redemption."   (Maxwell Johnson. The Rites of Christian Initiation:  Their Evolution and Interpretation, Revised and Expanded edition, Liturgical Press, 2007, pp 469-470.)

"[W]hat is the solemnity of the Immaculate Conception of Mary if the parallel is not drawn with our own 'immaculate conceptions' and new births solely by God's unmerited grace in the baptismal womb of the Church? Or, what is Mary's Assumption if not a concrete eschatological sign of our own baptismal hope in 'the resurrection of the dead and the life everlasting.'"  (Maxwell Johnson. The Rites of Christian Initiation:  Their Evolution and Interpretation, Revised and Expanded edition, Liturgical Press, 2007, pp 470-471.)

The Catechism of the Catholic Church affirms that "we must continue to accomplish in ourselves the stages of Jesus' life and his mysteries. ... For it is the plan of the Son of God to make us and the whole Church partake in his mysteries and to extend them and to continue them in us and in his whole Church." (CCC 521)  The Catechism of the Catholic Church acknowledges that this is a difficult idea to understand and reminds bishops and those responsible for teaching the faith that "this also demands that catechesis help the faithful to open themselves to this spiritual understanding of the economy of salvation as the Church's liturgy reveals it and enables us to live it." (CCC 1095)

A very fine article on Odo Casel appeared in Worship: March 2012, 86:2, pp 98-123 "The Liturgical Legacy of Odo Casel O.S.B." by Rose M. Beal.    "...for Casel, the mysterium is not the unknown; rather, it is that which is known only through divine revelation. Memorial is not what is remembered, but that which is made present by word and action through the act of remembering. Bringing these two concepts of mystery and memorial together, Casel suggested that in liturgical memorial, the Paschal Mystery (that is, the saving acts of Christ) is known and present such that the faithful might participate in it and thereby be saved..."   "...Aidan Kavanagh summarized the "core" of Casel's teaching as follows: "In the liturgy, as in the Church more generally, Christ is present not just as the object of our pious memory but present in his saving acts -- he dies not again but still,  rises not again but still -- in us, by us, and through us for the life of the world."    "Casel defined liturgical mystery generally as "a sacred and ritual action in which a redeeming work in the past is made present according to a fixed rite. In performing this sacred rite, the worshiping community enters into participation in the redeeming even which is evoked, and so gains its own salvation."   "Casel described the liturgy as anamnetic memorial: not mere intellectual recollection, but the very act of participating in Christ's acts present in worship."    "Casel's understanding of the liturgical year also appeared to receive the magisterial imprimatur at the Second Vatican Council.   Neunheuser suggested that Casel's vision in developing the sense of the anamnetic character of the liturgical year was a primary influence in the drafting of Sacrosanctum Concilium."    Casel's tombstone in the Herstelle monastery reads "mystagogos nobis".

Between memory and hope, between past and future. If all liturgy occurs precisely at the intersection of these two poles, the liturgical year belongs especially here as by means of its feasts and seasons the Church recalls and  remembers God's "once for all" salvific act in the historical and contigent past and proleptically begins to taste now, even as it anticipates in hope, the fullness of God's salvation I the eschatological future. That is, contrary to popular belief, the liturgical year is neither a kind of Hellenistic mystery religions reenactment of the life of Jesus nor an annual recurring cyclic meditation on and devotion to the historical life of Jesus. Rather, through feast and fast, through festival and preparation, the liturgical year celebrates the Presence of the already crucified and risen Christ among us "today (hodie!)" as we remember (anamnesis) what he did "once for all" in history (Heb 10:10), as we encounter his Presence among us now, and as we await his coming again in glory.  [Johnson, Maxwell E. -- Between memory and hope (pg. xi)]

Lumen Gentium 48:

The Church, to which we are all called in Christ Jesus, and in which we acquire sanctity through the grace of God, will attain its full perfection only in the glory of heaven, when there will come the time of the restoration of all things.(237) At that time the human race as well as the entire world, which is intimately related to man and attains to its end through him, will be perfectly reestablished in Christ.(238)

Christ, having been lifted up from the earth has drawn all to Himself.(239) Rising from the dead(240) He sent His life-giving Spirit upon His disciples and through Him has established His Body which is the Church as the universal sacrament of salvation. Sitting at the right hand of the Father, He is continually active in the world that He might lead men to the Church and through it join them to Himself and that He might make them partakers of His glorious life by nourishing them with His own Body and Blood. Therefore the promised restoration which we are awaiting has already begun in Christ, is carried forward in the mission of the Holy Spirit and through Him continues in the Church in which we learn the meaning of our terrestrial life through our faith, while we perform with hope in the future the work committed to us in this world by the Father, and thus work out our salvation.(241)

Already the final age of the world has come upon us (242) and the renovation of the world is irrevocably decreed and is already anticipated in some kind of a real way; for the Church already on this earth is signed with a sanctity which is real although imperfect. However, until there shall be new heavens and a new earth in which justice dwells,(243) the pilgrim Church in her sacraments and institutions, which pertain to this present time, has the appearance of this world which is passing and she herself dwells among creatures who groan and travail in pain until now and await the revelation of the sons of God.(244)

 

ANAPHORA: (Eucharist)   Greek word for offering. The central prayer in the Eucharistic Liturgy. Includes the consecration, anamnesis and the communion.

ANTINOMIANISM:   A theological understanding that faith and God's grace free a Christian from all laws (including the moral standards of their culture).

APOSTOLIC CONSTITUTION: (basic) The most solemn form of church law. An apostolic constitution completely revises existing law, canons, previous encyclical, etc. E.g. Poenitemini* is an apostolic constitution.

APOSTOLIC CONSTITUTIONS: A late fourth century document (ca. 381 C.E.)

ARISTOTLE'S GOD:  The God of Aristotle, unchanging pure spirit, enters the catechism and distorts the God of the bible.  

ARROGANCE:   Arrogance is the main obstacle to "mystery" and "transcendence" in the liturgy.  The opposite of "reverence" is not "irreverence"  but "arrogance"  As I have written in America:

I have found some Catholics who think this whole "welcoming" business is destroying our traditional sense of reverence and replacing it with some folksy feel good experience.  I believe this is a false conclusion.  If you wish to invite a guest into your home you must have space, you have to "make room."  To invite others into our hearts and our worship, we must make room for them.  The enemy of reverence is not hospitality but arrogance.  If we wish to worship in an atmosphere of reverence, we must rid our churches, our congregations, and our hearts of any superfluous self-importance, pride, and ambition that might be filling up our "guest spaces." We must empty ourselves in order to make room for the other to enter in.  This is the really difficult part of hospitality.   

Arrogance and all that goes with it is what needs to be "sacrificed" at the Eucharist.  When we are weighed down with pride and self-importance it is difficult to mount the cross with Jesus who "humbled himself and became obedient to the point of death--even death on a cross. (Philip. 2:8)  Emptying ourselves of arrogance is the key to experiencing reverence.  At a recent meeting of the North American Academy of Liturgy, the study group in which I participate visited a parish Harlem for Sunday Eucharist.  After Mass a group of parishioners meet with us to discuss our experience.  One of our group asked the parishioners "When do you have your deepest experience of prayer?  Where in the liturgy do you experience God?"  Without hesitation, several of the parishioners replied:  "In the welcoming community."  Hospitality is the doorway to transcendence.

ATONEMENT   "Atonement" refers to a variety of doctrines that describe how the sinful human race can be reconciled (become at-one-with at-one-ment) the divinity. See my notes at  http://www.tomrichstatter.org/eEucharist/e42sacri.htm#Atonement

ASS: Acta Sanctae Sedis. See: AAS*.

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- B -

BAPTIZO: Greek word: to dip (intensive form of the verb).

BCL: USCCB Committee on the Liturgy. A standing committee of the NCCB*. After In January 1991 the official name of this committee was changed from the Bishops' Committee on the Liturgy to the NCCB Committee on the Liturgy.

BCLN: USCCB Committee on the Liturgy Newsletter.

BARAKAH (BRK): (basic)   Hebrew word for blessing; plural, berakoth; composite form: birkath, e.g. birkath ha-mazon, blessing over food. (See Jasper pp 7 and 15.) The traditional, standard explanation of barakah would read: a Jewish blessing always addressed to God in the form of an act of grateful faith in the goodness of the creative power and divine providence which, having produced the object under consideration, still allowed its use; it implied the disposition to use the object of the blessing for the glory of God. As I use the term in class: barakah refers to a form (not a content); the form consists of 1) naming (=blessing, barakah) the divinity (e.g. Blessed are you, Lord, who...) 2) thankfully remembering (zikkron, anamnesis) the wonderful things God has done for us, and 3) a petition (epiclesis;  usually a petition asking God to send the Holy Spirit to do something)  The object of the blessing is both God and the creature; for example, the BRK for the water of baptism is both "blessing the water" and "blessing God over (or for) the water. We bless God for this meal, and we ask God to bless this meal. (See Jasper p 19.)

1.  Name the divinity -- bless God --  BRK
2.  Thankfully remember (eucharist) 
Anamnesis
            Creation, Jesus, Last Supper, Good Friday, Easter, Ascension, Pentecost, etc. 
3.  Petition -- Epiclesis -- Holy Spirit -- unity

THE BOTTLE OPENER METAPHOR:  I have a bottle opener in my kitchen cabinet drawer. There was a time when I frequently needed a bottle opener to open pop (soda) bottles and beer bottles and to poke a triangular hole in the top of juice cans. Today, when I buy soda or beer it usually comes in a bottle with a twist top or a can with a pull tab opener. I still have the bottle opener in my kitchen drawer so that it is available when I need it, but I seldom use it today.  [Some Church doctrines are like that.]

BRICOLAGE:   "Bricolage and pastiche.  The words are frequently used interchangeably to designate the shallowness of postmodern culture ... Claude Levi-Strauss brought the term bricolage into academic discourse when he used it to explain the scientific workings of mythic reflection in the Savage Mind. The French term refers to expediency, adapting one's actions to the situation at hand. The bricoleur is the handy man in contrast to a craftsman or engineer, one adept at odd jobs and repairs who does not begin work with a planned out project, dedicated materials, and accepted procedures, but must 'make do with whatever is at hand, that is to say with a set of tools and materials which bears no relation to the current project.'   ...  Michael de Certeau has been the most influential. His idea of bricolage is best understood in terms of the whole of his project to explore the rationality and practices of daily life ... De Certeau was particularly interested in the activities of groups who lacked power. His research provides a counter balance to the determinism of structuralist accounts of culture, especially against totalist accounts of power such as Michel Foucault's. With the notion of bricolage, de Certeau sought to understand how the powerless made creative use of the culture imposed on them. Consider the imposition of European culture and Christianity upon indigenous Americans. Submissive and even consenting to their subjection, the Indians nevertheless often made of rituals, representation and laws imposed on them something quite different from what their conquerors had in mind; they subverted them not by rejecting or altering them, but by using them with respect and to ends and references forgiven to the system they had no choice but to accept.  (Miller, Vincent J., Consuming Religion, Continuum Publishing, ISBN 0-8264-1531-8  p154-155)

Complicating the situation further is the spread of what French sociologists call bricolage, or Anglo-Saxons patchwork religion, referring to the tendency to assemble one's own religion rather than taking one off the shelf from traditional churches. In Catholic parlance, this is known as cafeteria Catholicism." The result is sometimes a syncretistic blend of difficult-to-reconcile ideas. According to the European Values Survey, for example, 25 percent of Europeans say that they believe in reincarnation contradicts orthodox Christian doctrine. Some self-identified Christians actually tell pollsters that they believe in Heaven but not in an afterlife.  (Allen, John L JR., Double Day Publishing, ISBN 978-0-385-52038-6, p 62)

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- C -

CALIX: Latin word: goblet, cup.

CARO: Latin word: flesh.

CATECHESIS: (initiation) (Many of the terms marked (initiation) I have taken from the Bishops' Committee on the Liturgy Newsletter vol XIV (October 1978) pp 133-135.) The instruction and spiritual formation of catechumens and those persons already baptized, who seek full communion with the Catholic Church.

CATECHUMEN: (basic) A person admitted to the catechumenate, one seeking formal entry into the Church. The "National Statutes for the Catechumenate" approved by the NCCB on November 11, 1986 state: The term "catechumen" should be strictly reserved for the unbaptized who have been admitted into the order of catechumens. (National Statutes for the Catechumenate, 2.)

CATECHUMENATE: (initiation) The process, of a determined period of time, by which the Church helps unbaptized adults to prepare for the sacraments of Christian initiation.

CATHOLIC  Thomas Groome says:  Though catholic is usually taken to mean "universal," this was more Aristotle's use of the term than how early Christians understood it.  Ignatius of Antioch, the first on record to call the Church catholic (circa 107) had inclusion in mind more than universal.  Inclusion, in fact, is closer to the roots of "catholic" - katha holos literally means "gathering in the whole," or more colloquially, "all are welcome." 

CCL: Code of Canon Law, 1983.

CD: Christus Dominus. Vatican II: Decree on the Bishops' Pastoral Office in the Church. October 28, 1965.

CDF: (basic) Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. Formerly: The Holy Office.

CDS: Congregation for the Discipline of the Sacraments. See: CDWDS*.

CDW: Congregation for Divine Worship. See: CDWDS*.

CDWDS: (basic)   Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments. On June 28, 1988, Pope John Paul II issued the APOSTOLIC CONSTITUTION* Pastor Bonus (on the Roman Curia) which joined the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Congregation for the Discipline of the Sacraments. See: BCLN* 1988 pp 33-34, 47.

CELEBRANT: (basic)   This word re-entered the liturgical vocabulary as the rites revised by the Second Vatican Council appeared.  Before the council the rubrics referred to "sacerdos" (the priest). As the understanding of the Mass broadened beyond "Good Friday"/Sacrifice the role of the priest broadened also.  As the verb "administer [the sacraments'" began to be replaced by "celebrate [the sacraments]" the leader of the celebration was called "the celebrant."  As the general principle of "active participation" began to be realized, it became clear that the entire assembly is the "celebrant" and the second editions of the editio typica of the rites carefully and deliberately changed the usage of this word and "celebrant" was applied to the whole celebrating assembly and the one leading the celebration was "presider," "priest celebrant," etc.  However, beginning in the 1990's Roman usage seemed unaware of this change and its implications, and the word "celebrant" often refers to the presiding priest.  

CHALCEDON, COUNCIL OF: Fourth Ecumenical Council-451; derived the formula of faith, and opposed those who would destroy the mystery of the incarnation, stated Mary as Theotokos, stated one nature of Christ; the unity of person in the Incarnation of the Word and the perfect integrity of His two natures.

CHANGE, DYNAMICS OF:  See:  Facts, Attitudes, Behavior, Group Behavior

CHARACTER: (basic)  The un-repeat-ability of baptism, confirmation, and orders.

1. See Code of Canon Law cc 845. 1985 Commentary pp 611-612.
2. In the early centuries we noticed that certain rituals were never repeated, namely Baptism (Confirmation) and Orders
3. Historical issues with whether or not to re-baptize those baptized by heretics leads to conclusion that Baptism is once and forever, never to be repeated.  [Confirmation is not distinguished from Baptism, ergo.]  Orders:  If Orders was not "forever" what about the validity of acts performed when the person was a priest after he is no longer a priest?  Ergo:  "You are a priest forever..."]
4. "Not repeated" Why?   begins to be explained by "Sacramental Character"
5. Sacramental Character becomes the
why they are not repeated
6. Sacramental Character becomes a
thing. See: David Foxen. The Dogmatic Interpretation of Sacramental Character According to the Discussions and Documents of the Council of Trent. Roma: Pontificia Universitas Gregoriana, 1975.  "In baptism you are sealed by Christ..."   The Sacramental Character is interpreted as this seal, this "indelible mark on the soul."
7. Augustine:  basic character = Baptism
8. Aquinas:  basic character = Orders. See: Aquinas.
Summa theologiae III, 1. 72, art. 5.
9. Conclusion:  When speaking of Sacramental Character we are speaking of the [historical fact of the] un-repeat-ability of Baptism or Orders.  This should be kept in mind when we elaborate a "theology" of the "seal".  

CHRONOS: Greek word: time.

CIC: Codex Juris Canonici. The Code of Canon Law, 1917.

CINQUAIN:  A French form of poetry, consisting of five lines: Line 1 consists of one word, a noun/title. Line 2 consists of two words describing the title.  Line 3 consists of three action words (or a phrase) about the title.  Line 4 consists of four words describing feelings about the title. Line 5 consists of one word summarizing and/or referring back to the title.  For example:

Reentry
Back home
Can't go back
Oh God, Oh God
No!

CLSA: Canon Law Society of America.

CLERICALIZATION OF THE LAITY   One of the major accomplishments of the Liturgical Movement (1900 - 1965) was the "rediscovery" of Baptism.  As baptism makes us "Christ," baptism enables us to celebrate the Eucharist. The Eucharist is the action of the entire Body, head and members.

This active participation of the laity changed the understanding of the liturgy as something by the priest for the laity (priests administered; laity received). This led to confusion on the part of some as to the role of the clergy and the role of the laity. Cardinal Arinze calls the "blurring of roles" "the clericalization of the laity" and "the laicization of the clergy."

On October 26, 2007 the Institut Superieur de Liturgie of the Institut Catholique de Paris held a colloquium to celebrate the golden jubilee of the school and the ISL invited Cardinal Francis Arinze the prefect of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Sacraments to give an address. After beginning with the usual congratulations ["God be praised that the Institut Superieur de Liturgie is celebrating a half-century of its life and service. In these 50 years this institute has made a significant contribution to liturgical reflection, life and allied formation in the Church. We pray the Lord Jesus to bless and reward all who in the past, or at the present time, have contributed to the work of this important section of the Institut Catholique de Paris. The Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments offers its warm congratulations to the institute."]  Arinze went on to point out that a "jubilee celebration such as this is a time not only for thanksgiving but also for reflection, for re-examination of orientations ..." And then pointed out several "abuses" especially "horizontalism" and "the clericalization of the laity." [Evidently these are not issues related exclusively to the Institut Superieur de Liturgie as they have been a constant, reoccurring theme in Arinze's speeches 2002-2007.]

"It is crucial that a higher liturgical institute delineate clearly the role of the priest in the sacred liturgy." ... "The common priesthood of all the baptized and the ministerial priesthood of the ordained priest come from Christ himself. Confusion of roles in the hierarchical constitution of the Church does damage. It does not promote witness to Christ nor holiness for clergy and laity. Neither attempts at the clericalization of the laity, nor efforts toward the laicization of the clergy, will bring down divine graces. ... It is false humility and an inadmissible idea of democracy or fraternity, for the priest to try to share his strictly priestly liturgical roles with the lay faithful." (Arinze, ISL, 5)

[It is the "clericalization of the laity" that has led to the lay minister assisting with the pouring of the Wine into the Communion cups at the fraction rite; or bring the ciborium from the tabernacle to the altar at Communion time; or receiving the kiss of peace from the presider even when they are not in the sanctuary (Latin: place for the priests); or purifying the cups and plates after Communion.]

At a recent meeting of the Catholic Academy of Liturgy, Professor Robert Taft S.J. pointed out the necessity of "looking deeper" beyond the surface issues to see what is really at stake. He used the example of the Jesuits' difficulty in obtaining papal permission for lay brothers to make solemn vows. His example struck a cord in me as we Franciscans have been having a similar problem. We are not canonically a "clerical institute" -- we are lay and ordained friars -- and we want to be recognized as a "mixed" congregation canonically (neither a clerical institute nor a lay institute). Without entering into the complexities of these issues, the real concern in Rome is not about lay brothers or who can be the minister in a local friary, but "the clericalization of the laity" and "the laicization of the clergy." The concern is not whether a Jesuit can make solemn vows, or whether a Franciscan brother can sign the check book, or whether a lay person can open the tabernacle door -- the real concern is what does this do to the priesthood?

If the priesthood is "less exalted" in people's eyes, no one will want to be a priest and the seminaries will be empty. As Cardinal Arinze goes on to say: "If the role of the priest is weakened or is not appreciated, a local Catholic community may be dangerously lapsing into the idea of a priestless community. This is not in line with the genuine concept of the Church instituted by Christ." (Arinze, ISL, 5)

COMMENTARY CLSA: CCL*: A text and Commentary, 1985.

COMPETENTES: (initiation) Those catechumens who have been elected and admitted into the Lenten period of final preparation for the sacraments of initiation (synonym: elect).

CONCOMITANCE: (eucharist)  The presence of Christ's Body and Blood under either consecrated bread or wine by virtue of the fact that a glorified living body cannot be divided.  See Chapter e24 Medieval Period

CONFIRMATION:  See Chapter d31 Sacrament and Chapter i37 Confirmation and Chapter i44 Confirmation of Catholics Baptized in Infancy

CONSTITUIT: See: Lex orandi*.

CONVERSION: (initiation)  See Metanoia

CONVERT: (basic)   The "National Statutes for the Catechumenate" approved by the NCCB on November 11, 1986 state: The term "convert" should be reserved strictly for those converted from unbelief to Christian belief and never used of those baptized Christians who are received into the full communion of the Catholic Church. (National Statutes for the Catechumenate, 2.)

CREED CODE CULTDuring the years before the Second Vatican Council, the phrase "Creed Code Cult" was heard frequently.  For example, the Baltimore Catechism (following the Catechism of Trent) was arranged "Creed, Code, Cult."  The (under the iceberg thinking) seemed to be this:  First of all we must know about God, "What we must believe" (Part One:  Creed); and if this is what we believe, what, then must we do (Part Two:  Code, that is, the ten commandments); and since it is difficult to keep the commandments, God has given us Cult (Part Three:  Sacraments, and the Lord's Prayer).  Note that this places the Liturgy and the Sacraments in the category "means of grace" and a remedy for sin.

When someone wanted to become Catholic the priest would 1) tell them what they need to believe to be a Catholic (the "most used text" for this was Father Smith Instructs Jackson); 2) then tell them what they needed to do to be Catholic (ten commandments; laws of the Church -- Sunday Mass, abstinence on Fridays, etc.); and then, if there was time left, 3) explain the sacraments and prayer, perhaps mentioning Jesus, the Bible (a basically protestant book) and tell them the God loves them.   (Lucky the "convert" that got all the way to that point!)

The current Catechism of the Catholic Church preserves this basic structure but moves the sacraments forward to Part Two, and adds a new section on the liturgy which was not in the former Catechism.

Part One:  The Profession of Faith (The Creed)
Part Two:  The Celebration of the Christian Mystery
    Section One:  The Sacramental Economy (Liturgy in general)
    Section Two:  The Seven Sacraments of the Church
Part Three:  Life in Christ (The Commandments)
Part Four:  Christian Prayer

Were a liturgist to structure the Catechism, she or he would no doubt 1) place the Liturgy first, following the axiom Lex orandi; 2) integrate the treatment of liturgy and prayer; and 3) treat the Eucharist first, followed by the other sacraments and sacramentals (as in Vatican II did in Sacrosanctum Concilium).  Cult / Creed / Code

(On the relation between Creed, Code and Cult and the three Congregations of the Holy Office, Discipline of the Sacraments, and Sacred Rites see Richstatter LLT pp xx-xxiii.)

CRUISE SHIP METAPHOR:  see Chapter p33 Spirituality of Ministry

CSL: (basic)   Vatican II, Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy, Sacrosanctum Concilium, December 4, 1963.

CSR: Congregation of Sacred Rites. See: CDWDS*.

CURIA: (basic)   The pope's "cabinet". On June 28, 1988, Pope John Paul II issued the apostolic constitution* Pastor Bonus which reformed the various congregations, secretariats, councils, and offices of the Roman curia.

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DEATH:  See my notes on death in Chapter f31 The Mystery of Death.

DEIFICATION:   Greek:   "theosis"; the goal of human existence; being taken up and absorbed into the inner life of the Trinity; the result of Christian Baptism, and indeed all the sacraments. See my notes at Chapter f31 The Mystery of Death

DIDASCALIA (APOSTOLORUM): A Church Order, written originally in Greek around the first part of the third century modeled on the Didache.

DISCURSIVE LAW: (basic) The discourse, the context, in which the dispositive law is given.

DISPOSITIVE LAW: (basic) The "therefore" that follows upon the discourse or discursive law; the specific things which the law disposes or regulates.

DMC: Directory for Masses with Children.

DOCETISM, DOCETIST: (eucharist) Those who denied the material reality of the body of Christ and said that he did not have a true body during His earthly existence, but merely a bodily appearance.

DOL: Documents on the Liturgy 1963-1969.

DOXA: (basic) Greek word, glory.  A doxology is a prayer giving God glory.  The Eucharistic Prayers end with the (great) doxology:  "...all glory (doxa) and honor are yours..." The (minor) doxology =  Glory to the Father, and to the Son, etc. The great doxology = "Glory to God in the highest and peace to God's people on earth, ..." 

DUALISM: A metaphysical theory which admits in any given domain, two independent and mutually irreducible substances, e.g., Platonic = sensible and intelligible worlds; Cartesian = thinking and extended substances; Leibnizian = actual and possible worlds; Kantian = noumenal and pheonomenal. A epistemological theory that in perception, memory and other types of non-inferential cognition, there is a numerical duality of the content or datum immediately present to the knowing mind and the real object known.

DULIA:  Honor / Cult  The Second Council of Nicea (787) taught that the word λατρία, (latria; Latin: adoratio; English: adoration) was to be used for those acts of worship due to God alone.  See: Prayer

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EDEN MYTH:  see The Eden Myth

ELECT: (initiation) A catechumen who has been found worthy by the community of faith and/or its representatives to take part in the next celebration of the sacraments of initiation (synonym: competentes [plural]).

ELECTION: (initiation) The process of selecting those catechumens who are considered ready and worthy to take part in the next celebration of the sacraments of initiation; the celebration (ordinarily the first Sunday of Lent) wherein the bishop or his delegate ratifies the selection process of the parish.

EMBOLISM: (eucharist) From the Greek em bolo -- to throw on, to add, to embellish. Hence, a text which embellishes a prayer. For example, the "Deliver us from all evil..." which is inserted at the end of the Our Father at eucharist.

ENLIGHTENMENT: (initiation) The period of Lent when the elect are involved in the final stage of preparation for celebrating the rites of initiation (synonym: illumination).

ENROLLMENT: (initiation) The rite celebrating the inscription into the "book of the elect" of the names of those catechumens elected to take part in the next celebration of the sacraments of initiation (synonym: inscription).

EOM: Holy Communion and Worship of the Eucharist Outside Mass.

EPHPHETA: (initiation) The rite in which the presider touches the ears and the mouth of the elect and prays that they be open to hear and proclaim the word of God in faith.

EPICLESIS: (basic) "invocation"; is applied to liturgical prayers which beseech God, and more especially the Holy Spirit.  At the eucharist the epiclesis is (a) to unify the assembly and (b) to consecrate the eucharistic elements.   See Berakah.  In the act of creation the humanity of Jesus, accomplished by the Trinity as such, the Spirit sanctified the humanity that was assumed by the Word.  Here the activity of the Spirit is viewed as prior to the assumption of the humanity of Jesus by the Word, not in temporal sense, but in the sense of priority of nature.  Correspondingly, in the case of the eucharistic sanctification, the Holy Spirit was assigned the role of sanctifier of the elements on bread and wine:  the divine agent by whom the earthly elements are elevated to unity of being with the risen Lord. (Kilmartin, 34)

ESSENCE OF SACRAMENTS: (eucharist) The matter and the form of each of the individual sacraments, the matter being the element and the form being the words which constitute the sacramental action.

ESSENES:  A first-century quasi-monastic Jewish community that had withdrawn to the desert to live lives of purity in preparation and eschatological expectation for the coming day of the Lord, and whose ritual practices are known to us both from that body of writings called The Dead Sea Scrolls and from references in the writings of the pro-Roman, Jewish historian Josephus.  (Maxwell Johnson. The Rites of Christian Initiation:  Their Evolution and Interpretation.  A Pueblo Book Published by the Liturgical Press 1999, p 7)

EVANGELIZATION: (initiation) The activity of the Church whereby a first proclamation of the Gospel is made to those persons inquiring about the faith.

EX OPERE OPERATO: (basic) "in virtue of the action performed" (literally: "by the work worked").   A theological explanation of the effects of a sacrament that developed to explain that a sacrament, even when performed by an unworthy priest, can give grace -- theses effects of grace of the sacrament taking place regardless of the disposition of the minister.   The term is contrasted with "ex opere operantis" "in virtue of the dispositions of the one acting."  While this theology rightly draws our attention to the fact that God freely gives grace and God is not dependent on human actions, even the celebration of sacraments, in this regard it is good to recall the story of the two baptisms

EXCOMMUNICATION: (eucharist)

EXORCISMS: (initiation) Prayers said over the elect during the scrutinies that they may be delivered from the powers of evil and falsehood and receive the gifts of the Lord, especially the Spirit.

-F-

FASTING:  See Metanoia

FDLC:  Federation of Diocesan Liturgical Commissions.

FERMENTUM: (eucharist) The particle of the eucharistic bread sent by the Bishop of Rome to the bishops of the other churches as a symbol of unity and intercommunion.  The Bread from the Pastor's Eucharist was to show unity with the larger church.  Theology of Consecration: consecrated the wine by commingling. Note the prayer which accompanies the action.  When conducting "The Mystery of Faith Study"  this item had the largest number responses  "simply omit."   When the laity drink from the cup...  (Canon 14 of the council of Laodicea (365 C.E.) forbade the custom of the Fermentum.)

FOCLARE MOVEMENT  The Focolare Movement was started in 1943 in Trent, Italy, by Chiara Lubich, and (at it's 60th anniversary in 2003) embraces 4.5 million people in 182 countries.

Franciscan Theology and the Incarnation    While the medieval theologians of the Franciscan School (e.g. Saint Bonaventure, John Duns Scotus, etc.) may have thought that Adam and Eve were historical persons, they do not consider the Incarnation to be a consequence of original sin.  The Franciscan School has always believed and taught that the Incarnation of Jesus is prior to Adam and Eve.  

FRUITS OF THE MASS: The graces received from the sacrifice of the Mass.

FULLNESS:  see PLEROMA

-G-

GCD: General Catechetical Directory.

GILH: General Instruction of the Liturgy of the Hours.

GIRM: (eucharist) General Instruction of the Roman Missal.

GNLYC: General Norms for the Liturgical Year and the Calendar.

GNOSTICISM: (eucharist) A philosophical and religious sect of early Christian times.  Gnosticism believed that its members possessed a knowledge of and insight into natural and supernatural things, a knowledge that was not given to nor obtainable by others; there were many diversified forms of Gnosticism.  In general they believed that there was an evil god of this world (who is identified with the god of the Old Testament) and a good God revealed by Jesus Christ.   Gnostics regard this world as the creation of the evil god who wishes to  keep the human soul trapped in an evil physical body.  It is the very opposite of the thought expressed in the poem (by Brian Rein) "Good is the flesh the Word has become."

GODPARENT(S): (initiation) The person(s) selected by the elect, with the consent of the pastor, to accompany them during the rites of initiation.

GRACE  The scholastics, and their descendents, envisioned "grace" as a thing, or a quantity of something. There were different kinds of it.   We could get more or less of it.  We could lose it and get it back.  We had to work for it and earn it.  Some even thought that we could buy it.

Contemporary theology speaks of grace as our interpersonal relationship of love with God.  Grace is not some "thing" apart from God but  our union with God in love.  It is a dynamic interaction with a person.  This relationship is not earned.  God loves us freely.  God never stops loving us.  

In the 2012 Madeleva Lecture in Spirituality, Becoming the Sign: Sacramental Living in a Post Counciliar Church, Kathleen Hughes RSCJ, writes: The "grace" of the sacrament is God's self-communication in love. What else is grace but relationship? For too long grace was thought of as a "thing" that was quantifiable. The old catechism definition of a sacrament suggested as much: "a sacrament is an outward sign, instituted by Christ, to give grace." And grace itself, in the categories of Scholastic theology, came in a variety of flavors: actual, sanctifying, previent, consequent, sacramental, and so on... all ways in which God meted out God's blessings. Yet, God's best blessing is not quantifiable; it is a share in God's very life. Grace is a way of union. It is an invitation to a new and deeper way of living in this sacramental universe where God longs to be in relationship with us and draws us again and again into God's very heart. Sacraments mediate encounter with the divine. (p 32)

Speaking of "grace" is like naming the love relationship of a parent and child, or the relationship between two lovers.   "That child is graced in having such loving parents."

Grace is another name of the Holy Spirit.

"Peter Lombard, the author of what was the universal theological manual for approximately three centuries during the Middle Ages, propounded the thesis that grace and love are identical and that love is the Holy Spirit. Grace in the proper and deepest sense of the word is not some thing that comes from God; it is God himself. Redemption means that God, acting as God truly does, gives us nothing less than himself."  (Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger, Mary: The Church at the Source, pp 67-68, citing Peter Lombard, Sententiae I, dist.17,1 )

e.g. Metaphor:  Grace is like electricity. 

Council of Trent Grace: There is an electrical socket in the wall. And I have a lamp I want to light up. I plug the lamp cord in the wall and electricity flows from the socket in the wall through the cord to the light bulb and the bulb lights up. When the sacraments are properly administered -- when the proper minister puts "matter" together with "form" -- grace flows from God (the wall socket) to the recipient (the lamp) and the recipient receives grace (lights up).

Vatican II Grace: A young couple is celebrating the first anniversary of their marriage. He tells her that there will be a surprise and when he arrives home from work he shows her reservations at her favorite little restaurant where -- over great wine and good food -- they remember their wedding day and reminisce about the wonderful life they have together. They return home and have awesome, ecstatic sex.  It's electric!

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HAGGADAH: The non-legal content of Jewish tradition (distinguished from the legal portion, i.e., Halakah) and denotes narration, story legend; material is wide-ranging and includes homilies, ethics, theology, history, science and folklore.

HEAVEN:  See my notes on heaven in Chapter f31 The Mystery of Death.

HEILSGESCHICHTE: German word: salvation history.

HELL:  See my notes on hell in Chapter f31 The Mystery of Death.

HISTORICISM:  (in the context of anamnesis)  means reducing the liturgical memorial to a mere "recalling" of a past event.  For example on Christmas: Place a statue of the infant Jesus into the crib over the tabernacle at the moment of consecration. or, on Good Friday: Have a passion play which acts out the bible history of the death of Jesus.  The liturgy actualizes the event. "The liturgy, after all, is not simply a play. We do not take part in the liturgy.

HOLY: (basic) That profound sense that there is infinitely more to experience than we can explain. (Bernard J. Lee, S. M. (editor) Alternative Futures for Worship: Volume 3 The Eucharist, Collegeville: The Liturgical Press, 1987, p 22.)

HOMOLOGOUMENA: The epistles Paul wrote himself; the later works are referred to as deutero-Pauline. (Murphy Center for Liturgical Research.  Made not Born. U. of Notre Dame Press, 1976.)

HOMOOUSIOS: "Consubstantial", of the same kind of stuff as; the Council of Nicaea (325) intended to assert Christ's full equality with the Father.

HOST:  (in the sense of a "communion wafer") The English word "host" comes from the (late) Latin "hostia" which means "the victim offered in sacrifice".  The word enters eucharistic vocabulary when the Mass a meal is overshadowed by the Mass as sacrifice.  (The English word is first used about 1300).

HOSPITALITY, LITURGICAL:  see below:  MYSTERION.

HYLOMORPHISM: (eucharist) A term coined from the Greek words for form and matter and used to designate the Aristotelian-scholastic teaching that all natural or physical bodies are composed of matter and form as essential substantial principles.

HYPERDULIA:  The special honor (dulia) given to Mary.  The Second Council of Nicea (787) taught that the word λατρία, (latria; Latin: adoratio; English: adoration) was to be used for those acts of worship due to God alone.  See: Prayer

HYPOSTATIC UNION: (eucharist) The union of the divine and human natures in the divine person of Christ.

-I-

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ICEBERG:  The iceberg has been used as a metaphor for our conscious and unconscious understanding of theological concepts.  For further information see the Iceberg metaphor.

ICEL:  (basic) International Commission on English in the Liturgy. The ICEL constitution is published in Notitiae* 108-109 (1975) p. 245-248).

ICET: International Consultation on English Texts.

ICON: In the Pauline sense of mysterion, a visible appearance that is bearer of the reality it represents. (Father Robert F. Taft, S.J.)

ILLICIT: (basic) Not permitted. See: licit*. Ordinarily, it is illicit to perform an invalid* act.

ILLUMINATION: (initiation) That time, ordinarily coinciding with the Lenten season, devoted to the final preparation for the celebration of the sacraments of initiation (synonym: purification, enlightenment).

IMMERSION: (initiation) A method of baptism in which the candidate is submerged either entirely or partially in the baptismal water.

IMPANATION: (eucharist) The doctrine which states that the substance of bread and wine remain unchanged, that Christ in the eucharist is God without a change of the substance of bread and wine.

INFUSION: (initiation) A method of baptism in which the baptismal water is poured over the head of the candidate.

INITIATION: (initiation) The process by which a person enters the faith life of the Church; the process from the catechumenate through the normally continuous celebration of the entrance rites of baptism, confirmation, and the eucharist.

INQUIRERS: (initiation) Persons who sincerely seek to learn about the faith of the Church.

INSCRIPTION: (initiation) The rite in which the names of the elect who are to take part in the next celebration of the sacraments of initiation are written in the register, the "book of elect" (synonym: enrollment).

INTERCOMMUNION:  see Chapter e69 Ecumenism and Intercommunion

INVALID: (basic) Not valid.

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-J-

JIHAD:  literally means striving, or exertion in the way of God, either personally, by struggle against lack of faith and devotion, or publicly, by preaching, teaching, and, if necessary, armed struggle. The inner striving is the Great jihad. The terms is similar to the striving / struggle St. Paul speaks of when he says part of him wants to do stuff the rest of him knows he shouldn't and he has to struggle against this part of himself so that the Spirit can reign. Jihad is what Jesus speaks of as metanoia / conversion.

Sometimes, this struggle must be against external forces which are keeping one from following the directions of the Spirit.

This use is in the West extended to just "killing people" --

To use the word in this way is offensive to Muslims.

It would be like Muslim news programs calling the American "struggle" in Iran "The American Novena of Hatred" -- the very use of novena, which has "positive religious and devotional" connotations from many Americans would be offensive -- I could probably think of a better example than novena, but that was the word that came to mind.

-K-

KAIROS: (basic) Greek word: time. The time of grace, salvation. Now is the acceptable time.

KATABATIC [moving downward]  see: ANABATIC

KERYGMA: (basic) Greek word: preaching. "The element of proclamation in Christian apologetic, as contrasted with DIDACHE or its instructional aspects." (Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, p 764.) The basic paschal proclamation.

KNOWING AND DOING:   Is Christianity more about "knowing" or "doing"?

KOINONIA: Greek word: fellowship, communion.

KRISMA: Greek word: anointing. KRISTOS: The Anointed One. Christ. Hebrew: Messiah.

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-L-

Latin for BEST SELLER (liber maxime divenditus) and BLUE-JEANS (bracae linteae caeruleae) and COMPUTER (instrumentum computatorium) and COW BOY (armentarius), etc.  can be found on the Vatican Web Site for the Latin Language

LATRIA:  Worship.  Latria is the worship given to God alone as contrasted with the cult of the saints (dulia) and Mary (hyperdulia).  The Second Council of Nicea (787) taught that the word λατρία, (latria; Latin: adoratio; English: adoration) was to be used for those acts of worship due to God alone. Everybody and everything else got something less, δουλία (dulia). Mary received a special dulia that was somewhat better than the rest (hyperdulia), but it was still dulia and not latria. One could adore or worship God; but one did not adore or worship saints, or statues of saints, sacred trees, rocks or anything else.  See: Prayer

LEGEM CREDENDI: See: lex orandi*.

LEX ORANDI: (basic) Lex orandi legem credendi constituit. The way we pray establishes belief.  For an explanation see Chapter d32 The Axiom:  Lex Orandi

LG: (basic) Vatican II, The Constitution on the Church, Lumen Gentium*, November 21, 1964.

LICIT: (basic) Permitted. Alright to do. The negative of licit is illicit. An "illicit act" is an act that is "not permitted.  Even though an action might be illicit, pastoral sensitivity in a particular circumstance might recommend it.  Ordinarily, it is illicit to perform an invalid act. See: valid.

LIMBO:  See my notes on limbo in Chapter f31 The Mystery of Death.

THE LITURGICAL MOVEMENT:  The early 1900's saw the beginning of a revival of interest in the liturgy.  This "liturgical movement" prepared the way for the Second Vatican Council's Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy.  

LITURGY: (basic) Pius XII. Mediator Dei*. "The sacred Liturgy is consequently the public worship which our Redeemer as Head of the Church renders to the Father as well as the worship which the community of the faithful renders to its Founder, and through Him to the Heavenly Father. It is, in short, the worship rendered by the Mystical Body of Christ in the entirety of its Head and members." Vatican II, CSL* #2, "For the liturgy, "making the work of our redemption a present actuality," most of all in the divine sacrifice of the eucharist, is the outstanding means whereby the faithful may express in their lives and manifest to others the mystery of Christ and the real nature of the true Church."

LLT: Liturgical Law Today: New Style, New Spirit.

LMD: La Maison-Dieu. Quarterly review published under the direction of the National Center for Pastoral Liturgy, Paris. 1945 to date.

LMT: Liturgical Music Today.

LUMEN GENTIUM: (basic) Vatican II, The Dogmatic Constitution on the Church, November 21, 1964.

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-M-

MAGIC: (basic) Magic implies ritual actions performed either to get something from God that we would not if we did not perform the act or to convince God to do something that God would not do otherwise. RELIGION, on the other hand, involves opening ourselves to God's will and celebrating an awareness of what God has already given us or done for us. (Bernard J. Lee, S. M. (editor) Alternative Futures for Worship: Vol 3 The Eucharist, Collegeville: The Liturgical Press, 1987, p 39.)

MANATERGIUM: Latin: towel. The white strip of cloth used in the pre-conciliar ordination rite which bound the newly ordained anointed hands while he touched the chalice and paten.  The use of the Manatergium in the ordination of a priest is no longer allowed.  See USCCB, BCL Newsletter, August 2, 2002 page 87.

MARANA THA: (eucharist) Aramaic words. The early Fathers interpreted them as meaning "The Lord has come," but they should probably be translated "Come, Lord." (See Jasper, Prayers p 21.)

MARIA LAACH, ABBEY OF: Benedictine foundation (1093) in the Rhineland, near Andernach, West Germany; the abbey became a center of the liturgical reform.

MATZOTH: The feast of Unleavened Bread; was the spring celebration of the sedentary farmer; it marked the beginning of the barley harvest, and during the first seven days of this harvest only the newly harvested grain was eaten in an unleavened bread made without the ferment which remained from the previous year's grain.

MCW: Music in Catholic Worship.

MEDIATOR DEI et hominum: Encyclical on the Sacred Liturgy, of Pius XII, November 20, 1947.

METANOIA:  Greek word: turn around (from sarx to pneuma).  Verb = Metanoiete in Greek, Paenitemini in Latin:  to convert, to repent, to do penance.  Conversion "The ongoing response of our whole person turning in faith in the amazing grace of God's love, our response of love in prayer and moral action, celebrating that love in a myriad of liturgies, and witnessing to that love and justice in our world (James Dunning, "Conversion" Catholic Update CU 0488).  Metanoia:  "We can only approach the Kingdom of Christ by metanoia.  This is a profound change of the whole person by which one begins to consider, judge and arrange his life according to the holiness and love of God, made manifest in his Son in the last days and given to us in abundance"  Paul VI, Apostolic Constitution Paenitemini, February 17, 1955.  AAS 58 (1966) 179.    Penance:  "The comprehensive dynamic that involves the whole Church, as well as the individual believer, in building up and ennobling corporate existence in Christ.  It has to do with continual growth within the body of the Church. It deals typically with ongoing conversion and moral transformation." (Mannion, "Penance and Reconciliation," Worship 60 (March 1986) p 109.) See: Reconciliation*.

METAPHOR:  "The essence of metaphor is understanding and experiencing one kind of thing in terms of another"  (Lakoff and Johnson, Metaphors We Live By, p 5).   A metaphor both reveals and conceals; it tell us something about "what is" and about "what is not." Metaphors are polyvalent.  Brandon Scott points out that "allegory and metaphor are not juxtaposed but are part of the same continuum" (Scott, Hear Then the Parable, p 47).  See:  Chapter d42 Symbol and Metaphor

MONKS    The Parable of the Two Monks

MYSTAGOGIA: (initiation) The postbaptismal catechesis given to the newly baptized during the Easter season, wherein the neophyte and the local Church share the meaning of the initiatory mysteries and experience. The term is borrowed from the language of the mysteries, where it means the introduction of the uninitiated to the knowledge and the effective celebration of the mysteries. The one who leads the person through mystagogia, the mystagoge is like a tour guide, one who knows the territory and helps the neophytes move around in this new space.

MYSTERION:  Greek word: plan. The mysterious, divine plan for our salvation. Mysterion was translated into the Latin by the word sacramentum, oath.  The English word "mystery" picks up something of the "wonder and awe" we experience in the presence of the divine plan.  Mystery is an important element of worship and it deserves careful examination. There is the sense of mystery that comes from standing in the presence of the Holy One; and there is the sense of mystery that comes from not understanding something. These must not be confused.   

"God devised a plan, a great and wonderful plan, and shared it only with the Son. As long as God preserved this secrecy and kept his own wise counsel, it seemed God was neglecting us and had no concern for us. But when God revealed the secret and made public through the beloved Son what had been prepared for us from the very beginning, God all at once gave us gifts such as we could never have dreamt of -- even sight and knowledge of God!"  (From "A Letter to Diognetus", Liturgy of the Hours, December 18, Office of Readings)

Ask Google to define "mystery" and a series of definitions are suggested.   For example:  a mystery is something that baffles understanding and cannot be explained; a genre of film involving mystery as the main element of the film; Orthodox term for "sacrament"; a term derived from the Latin word mysterium -- a term used to express the overwhelming awe and sense of unknowable mystery felt by those to whom some aspect of God or of divine being is revealed;  a suspenseful story dealing with a puzzling crime; any matter that is hidden, secret, unexplained or inexplicable, beyond human knowledge or comprehension, such as a religious truth known only from Divine Revelation; a reality which we cannot fully grasp intellectually. 

It is this last understanding of "mystery" by which we understand mysterion as the Divine Plan for Jesus Christ to be the Firstborn of all creation.  This is "something that is too wonderful for human understanding"; it is not simply "something that I don't understand."  For example, if you came to class speaking only Chinese, we might find that very mysterious because we wouldn't understand what you are saying.  Does the fact that the Mass was in a mysterious language (Latin) account for the "lost of mystery"? Or is this something else?  Nathan Mitchell in Worship magazine points us to deeper issues.  As I wrote in America ("The Ministry of Hospitality," America, 190:15 (May 3, 2004) pp12-14)

I have found some Catholics who think this whole "welcoming" business is destroying our traditional sense of reverence and replacing it with some folksy feel good experience.  I believe this is a false conclusion.  If you wish to invite a guest into your home you must have space, you have to "make room."  To invite others into our hearts and our worship, we must make room for them.  The enemy of reverence is not hospitality but arrogance.  If we wish to worship in an atmosphere of reverence, we must rid our churches, our congregations, and our hearts of any superfluous self-importance, pride, and ambition that might be filling up our "guest spaces." We must empty ourselves in order to make room for the other to enter in.  This is the really difficult part of hospitality. 

Arrogance and all that goes with it is what needs to be "sacrificed" at the Eucharist.  When we are weighed down with pride and self-importance it is difficult to mount the cross with Jesus who "humbled himself and became obedient to the point of death--even death on a cross. (Philip. 2:8)  Emptying ourselves of arrogance is the key to experiencing reverence.  At a recent meeting of the North American Academy of Liturgy, the study group in which I participate visited a parish Harlem for Sunday Eucharist.  After Mass a group of parishioners meet with us to discuss our experience.  One of our group asked the parishioners "When do you have your deepest experience of prayer?  Where in the liturgy do you experience God?"  Without hesitation, several of the parishioners replied:  "In the welcoming community."  Hospitality is the doorway to transcendence.

MYTH:  (basic) "representations of values and attitudes in story form."  (Martos, p 15) see RITUAL.  Solan (an ancient philosopher) once said: A myth is not about something that never happened; but about something that happens over and over again.  (From Speaking of Faith April 23, 2006)

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NAAL: North American Academy of Liturgy.

NCCB: The National Conference of Catholic Bishops. A canonical entity operating in accordance with the Conciliar decree Christus Dominus.  On July 1, 2001, The National Conference of Catholic Bishops (NCCB) changed its name to the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops (USCCB)  With this name change the previously separate entities of the National Conference of Catholic Bishops and the United States Catholic Conference (USCC) have been merged.  Their website may be accessed at  http://www.usaccb.org

NCE: New Catholic Encyclopedia.

NCWC: National Catholic Welfare Conference. In May 1967 the NCWC became the USCC. On July 1, 2001, The National Conference of Catholic Bishops (NCCB) changed its name to the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops (USCCB)

NEOPHYTE: (initiation) A newly baptized person who is going through the final period of Christian initiation: the postbaptismal catechesis. See: mystagogia*.

NOMINALISM: In scholastic philosophy, nominalism is the theory that abstract or general terms, or universals, represent no objective real existents, but are mere word or names, mere vocal utterances.

NOTITIAE: The journal first of the Concilium and now of the CDWDS.

NOUMENON: The noumenon in Kant is an object or power transcending experience whose existence is theoretically problematic but must be postulated by practical reason.

NPM: National Association of Pastoral Musicians.

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OIL OF CATECHUMENS: (initiation) The oil, blessed by the bishop at the Chrism Mass to be used in the anointing of the catechumens during the process of initiation.

ONTIC CHANGE: (eucharist) Schillebeeckx uses the term ontic change to indicate that the reality of bread and wine is changed because it becomes a sign of Christ's presence, a substantial change.

ORIGINAL SIN:  (initiation)  "Our need for redemption by Christ."   See Chapter i41 Baptism of Infants

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PAIS: Greek word: child, servant, boy (as in calling a waiter, "Hey, boy, come here!") In a more archaic or primitive Christology the word is often applied to Jesus or Christ, before Christ became the pantocrator. (See Jasper Prayers, p 21.)

PELAGIANISM:  The theological system which held that a person took the initial and fundamental steps towards salvation by his or her own efforts without the assistance of Divine Grace. The teaching owes its formulation to Pelagius, a British (or Irish) lay monk who came to Rome in the time of Pope Anastasius (399-401), where he acquired a reputation for learning and devotion and engaged in various literary works.  (See: The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, p 1040.)

PENANCE: (basic)  See Metanoia

PER MODUM SUBSTANTIA: (eucharist) Through the substance; Christ is present in an extraordinary way; in a spiritual way.

PERICHORESISGreek: "to dance around"  The theological term was coined to explain how one divine person could be said to be in another divine person, still retaining the notion of one God, expressed, however, in three distinct persons inhering in one another and drawing life from one another.  (Rev. Jerry Austin, "Three Priesthoods", Assembly, Volume 32, Number 4, July 2006)   John Paul applies the interplay between the two priesthoods (baptismal and ministerial) on three levels, applying the term perichoresis to each: "a perichoresis between the common witness to the faith given by the faithful and the bishops' authoritative witness to the faith through his magisterial acts; a perichoresis between the lived holiness of the faithful and the means of sanctification that the bishop offers them; and finally a perichoresis between the person responsibility of the bishop for the good of the church entrusted to him and the shared responsibility of all the faithful for that same church" (Pastores Gregis:  Shepherds of the Flock, #10)

PERIODS: (initiation) Times of investigation and maturation marking the initiation process: 1) period of evangelization and Precatechumenate; 2) the period of catechumenate; 3) period of purification and enlightenment; 4) period of postbaptismal catechesis.

PERSON: (eucharist) In scholasticism a person is an individual substance of rational nature; as individual it is material, since matter supplies the principle of individuation; the soul is not person, only the composite is: only a human being among the material beings is a person; only women and men have a rational nature.

PESAH: The meaning and etymology of this word are uncertain; it refers to an Israelite festival and seems to designate both the feast and the animal eaten at the festival banquet.

PHENOMENALISM: Theory that knowledge is limited to phenomena including (a) physical phenomena or the totality of objects of actual and possible perception and (b) mental phenomena the totality of object of introspection; two forms of; (1) denies a reality behind the phenomena or (2) expressly affirms the reality of things-in-themselves but denies their knowability.

PELAGIANISM.  The theory that we earn salvation by our good works.  "The theological system which held that a person took the initial and fundamental steps towards salvation by his or her own efforts apart from the assistance of Divine Grace. The teaching owes its formulation to Pelagius, a British (or Irish) lay monk who came to Rome in the time of Pope Anastasius (399-401), where he acquired a reputation for learning and devotion and engaged in various literary works." (Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church)

PHALANX THEORY: The (false) theory that the Church's understanding of the Mystery of Faith moves ahead in lock step like a Roman Phalanx. It is true that, as the Second Vatican Council states: "as the centuries succeed one another, the Church constantly moves forward toward the fullness (pleroma)of divine truth until the words of God reach their complete fulfillment in her." (Dogmatic Constitution on Divine Revelation, #8)   However, this is not a lock step, harmonious, consistent progress.

When I was fourteen and began my seminary education the first picture in the text book for Latin One was of a Roman Phalanx. I still remember the soldiers with their shields locked together, advancing the power of the Roman Empire across the face of the globe. I imagined them as a large bull dozer plowing through anything that got in their way. This image served as a metaphor for my understanding of the development of Church doctrine. However today it is clear that doctrine does not develop according to this metaphor. We see an advance in one area and after the implications are realized there may be an advance in a related area. Sometimes an advance in one area may seem to cause a regression in another area. For example an increased awareness of the priesthood of all the baptized may cause a confusion in the role of the laity and the role of the clergy. This confusion in turn may inspire historical investigation as to whether or not these categories themselves are of divine or ecclesial origin. 

PLACEBO: Parable of the placebo and invalid sacraments.

PLEROMA:   ("fullness") "The Church constantly moves forward toward the fullness of divine truth." (Dogmatic Constitution on Divine Revelation, #8).   For example, regarding the Eucharist:  "The Eucharist is a complex mystery. None of us--no matter how learned, no matter how holy--can fully grasp it. The Holy Spirit helps us to hand on to the next generation what we have received from the generations before us so that "the Church constantly moves forward toward the fullness of divine truth." (Dogmatic Constitution on Divine Revelation, #8)  But this constant move forward happens in a human way: It happens in time, over centuries, with periods of rapid progress and periods of hesitancy and retreat. God works "incarnationally." God has placed the divine mysteries, even the great mystery of the Eucharist, in human hands. "Your son has entrusted to us this pledge of his love" (Eucharistic Prayer for Reconciliation II).  The Incarnation of Jesus can help us understand the mystery of the Eucharist. We believe that the eternal Word of the Father took flesh and became truly human. In his divine nature Jesus existed before all time with the Father and the Spirit. In his human nature Jesus of Nazareth was a man of his time: He dressed like other first-century Jews, spoke their language, ate their food and shared their culture.  Similarly, the Eucharist has both divine and human elements. While the Eucharist is, was and always will be the celebration of the Paschal Mystery of Christ's death and resurrection, this divine mystery is "incarnated" into human culture. The eucharistic celebration employs the language, clothing, postures and rhythms appropriate to the culture in which it is celebrated. And, as cultures differ from place to place and from age to age, we can expect corresponding differences in the celebration of the Eucharist."  (Richstatter, Eucharist: Jesus With Us.)

PNEUMA: (basic) Greek: Spirit. See: Conversion*.

PNEUMATIC:  Pertaining to the Spirit; in contrast to CHRISTIC, pertaining to Christ.

POENITEMINI:   Paul VI, Apostolic constitution, On fast and abstinence, February 17, 1966. Greek: METANOIA*.

POPULAR DEVOTIONS:  Popular devotions are ways of worshiping and celebrating that have developed since the advent of Christianity, and are the people's alternative to a formal liturgy that is in expression and celebration foreign to them. Popular religiosity refers to something more ancient and deep-rooted, even as it is subject to constant accommodation and change, in keeping with peoples' social conditions. Though it is in fact often mixed in with practices of popular devotion, as for example in blessings and pilgrimages or in marks of respect to the dead that survive beyond the advent of Christianity among non-Eurocentered peoples, it deserves to be looked at in its own right. (Ibid. pp 238-239.)

POSTBAPTISMAL: (initiation) After baptism.

PRECATECHUMENATE: (initiation) The period prior to formal entry into the catechumenate for hearing the first preaching of the Gospel.

PRESANCTIFIED: (eucharist) A "Mass" with already consecrated bread.

PRESENTATION, RITES OF: (initiation) The rites in which the Church hands on to the elect its ancient documents of faith and prayer: the profession of faith or the creed (symbol) and the Lord's Prayer.

PROJECTIONPsychological projection or projection bias is a psychological defense mechanism where a person unconsciously denies his or her own attributes, thoughts, and emotions, which are then ascribed to the outside world, such as to other people. Thus, projection involves imagining or projecting the belief that others have those feelings. See   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psychological_projection

PURGATORY:  See my notes on purgatory in Chapter f31 The Mystery of Death.

PURIFICATION: (initiation) That period which normally falls in Lent and begins with the rite of election, when the elect and the local community give themselves to spiritual recollection in preparation for the feast of Easter and the sacraments of initiation.

PYX: (eucharist) A container for the host.

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RADBERTUS, PASCHASIUS: (eucharist)  See:  Nathan Mitchell. Cult and Controversy: The Worship of the Eucharist Outside Mass. New York: Pueblo Publishing Company, 1982, p. 73.

RATRAMNUS: (eucharist)  See:  Nathan Mitchell. Cult and Controversy: The Worship of the Eucharist Outside Mass. New York: Pueblo Publishing Company, 1982, p. 80.

RBC: Rite of Baptism for Children.

RC: Rite of Confirmation.

RCIA: (basic) Rite of Christian Initiation of Adults.

RECONCILIATION: (basic) The "overcoming of the break with the community of believers, and with God, that takes place through falling away from baptismal grace." (Mannion, "Penance and Reconciliation," Worship 60 (March 1986) p 109.)

REGISTER: (initiation) The book in which the names of the catechumens, along with those of the minister and sponsors and the date and place of admission into the catechumenate, are recorded.

RES ET SACRAMENTUM: (basic)   See:  John P. Schanz,  Introduction to the Sacraments, New York: Pueblo, 1983, pp 109-113.  In the course of the twelfth century the composition of the sacrament of the Eucharist was reduced to the ternar:  sacramentum-sacramentum et res-res; and in the definitive form, achieved in the thirteenth century, the middle term was reversed to res et sacramentum. (Kilmartin, 63)

SACRAMENTUM TANTUM The "sign (sacrament) alone", the matter and form of the sacrament with the intention of the minister and the disposition of the recipient. The external rite. Id quod significat sed non significatur.  That which signifies but is not signified. The liturgical action itself.RES ET SACRAMENTUM The symbolic reality. The ecclesial effect of the sacrament. Character. Id quod significatur et alterius aliquid significant. That which is signified and itself signifies something else. The means by which we encounter the transcendent reality. RES SACRAMENTI [or RES TANTUM:] The reality (of the sacrament) in itself. That which is beyond experience.  The religious effect of the sacrament. Grace. Id quod non significat, sed significatur. That which is signified but does not signify.
the external rite:  e.g. the pouring of the water with the wordsthe first effect of the sacrament, the character the internal dimension,  the sacramental grace, the ultimate reality conferred by the sacrament
For example, Robert Frost's Mending Wall. The poem is a sign.Mending Wall.  On the first level there is the story, the event recorded.Mending Wall.  But the event recorded signifies something deeper. A reality of human relations
Eucharist:  The Meal Sharing of Bread and Wine.Eucharist:  Christ's Body and Blood.Eucharist:  Thomas Aquinas described the res of the eucharist as unitas corporis mystici, the unity of the mystical body.   (Summa Theologiae III, q. 73, a. 3.). The sacramental unity of the Body of Christ reflected by the response to the love of Christ already present in one's heart. For Thomas, the principal effect of the eucharist was the unity among the members of the Church with Christ their head.
(Yves Congar.  Worship 82:4 p. 311)  the ritual of the sacraments, the exterior signthe effect produced that is not, however, the complete fruition, not the ultimate reality which the sacred action of the sacramental rite intendsthat which is the complete fruition of the sacrament, the spiritual reality signified by the sacred ritual and brought about in mystery by the rite.

Reconciliation:  The rite.

Reconciliation:  Reconciliation with the Church.Reconciliation:  Divine forgiveness.

RES SACRAMENTI:  See:  RES ET SACRAMENTUM

RITUAL: (basic) Repetitive, symbolic actions expressive of a community's myth or sacred story.  See Mythos, Myth and Ritual

RM: Roman Missal.

RP: Rite of Penance.

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SABAOTH: (eucharist) Latin transliteration of tsaba, hosts. Isaiah 6:3. Because "hosts" for American Catholics are little, round, white communion wafers, the word in the ICET* "Holy" is translated: power and might. See: Sanctus*.

SACRAMENT: (basic) The basic understanding of Catholic sacraments finds it's roots in the Greek word Mysterion [which see].  The term "sacrament" comes from the Latin word sacramentum.  For a description of sacramental theology and a sample of definitions of sacrament see Chapter d31 Sacrament. St. Augustine, Sermo 272 (PL. 1247) "Ista, fratres, ideo dicuntur Sacramenta, quia in eis aliud videtur, aliud intelligiture."  "These things, brothers, are called sacraments, because in them something is seen, but, something else is understood." (Kilmartin, 26)

"The church celebrates in the sacraments, especially in the Eucharist, Jesus's passing over to his Father. 'The role of the sacraments is to reproduce in a particular mode of being [as sign] . . .  what Jesus did for us in the days of his flesh. This allows the root to bear its fruits -- to make the Christ Alpha produce within us over time the reality of life in such a way as to form the Christ Omega.' Consequently the participation of the faithful in the church's sacramental life cannot be that of observers or of mere recipients. We are baptised into a common priesthood that makes us participants in the celebration of the body and blood of the Lord. Christ's priesthood exists in the members of his body to stimulate their participation in his own sacrifice, bringing about the willing sacrifice of human persons united to the sacrifice of Jesus Christ.  'In this way the faithful accomplish and fill up the sacrifice of Jesus, their Alpha (their source).' [From the introduction to Congar's Ecclesiastical Subtext: Intransigent Conservatism by Paul Philibert, OP]

SACRAMENTA PROPTER HOMINES  Ancient axiom:  "Sacraments are for people."   (Origin unknown).  "The liturgy is not a thing.  The worship of God does not just happen because there is a celebration, even a good one, using the rites of the sacraments.  It does not happen until the res (the spiritual reality) of the liturgy is achieved in the believers who celebrate.  This is the deeper meaning of the axiom, sacramenta propter homines.  Sacraments are for people not only with respect to their purpose, which governs and guides the logic of their 'administration,' but also with respect to their reality, with respect to the true efficacy of the spiritual action which they are intended to bring about.  (Yves Congar, Worship 81:4 p. 314)

The Catechism of the Catholic Church (1992) speaks of the liturgy in two sections of "Part Two: The Celebration of the Christian Mystery", namely "Section One:  The Sacramental Economy", # 1066 to 1209, 143 articles, and "Section Two: The Seven Sacraments of the Church"  # 1210 to 1691, 481 articles.  Many theologians have observed that these two sections reflect two very different approaches to liturgy and sacraments, and apparently the two authors (or two committees) did not read each other's work or share their theological viewpoint. 

SACRAMENTAL CHARACTER:  see CHARACTER

SACRAMENTUM: (basic) Latin word: oath. Latin translation for the Greek word mysterion*.

SACRAMENTUM TANTUM:  See:  RES ET SACRAMENTUM

SACRIFICE.    "Authentic Christian Sacrifice:  First of all, Christian sacrifice is not some object that we manipulate, nor is it something that we do, or something we give up.  It is first and foremost, a mutually self-giving event that takes place between persons.  It is, in fact, the most profoundly personal and interpersonal event that we can conceive or imagine.  It begins, in a kind of first 'moment', not with us but with the self-offering of God the Father in the gift of the Son.  It continues, in a second 'moment', in the self-offering 'response' of the Son, in his humanity and in the power of the Holy Spirit, to the Father and for us.  And it continues further in a third 'moment' -- and only then does it begin to become Christian sacrifice - when we, in the human actions that are empowered by the same Spirit that was in Jesus, begin to enter into that perfect, en-Spirited, mutually self-giving, mutually self-communicating personal relationship that is the life of the Blessed Trinity."   (Daly, Sacrifice Unveiled, p 5)  See Chapter e42 Sacrifice

SACROSANCTUM CONCILIUM: (basic) Vatican II, Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy, December 4, 1963.

SANCTUS: (eucharist) Latin word: holy. Hebrew: kadosh. Sanctus, sanctus sanctus, Dominus Deus Sabaoth*. Isaiah 6:3. The triple sanctus, holy, equals the English superlative. Most holy, holiest Lord, Lord of Lords.

SARX: (basic) Greek: flesh. Metaphor for egocentricity, the un-redeemed part of a person. See: Conversion*.

SC: See: Sacrosanctum Concilium*.

SCRUTINIES: (initiation) Rites celebrated by the priest or deacon with the elect on the third, fourth and fifth Sundays of Lent, petitioning for the spirit of repentance and understanding of sin and the true freedom of the children of God.

SEAL:  Sphragis in Greek, Signaculum in Latin. Hebrew hatima, as the hatima of Jewish berakoth. Seal; official stamp. The kiss of peace concluding the prayers of the faithful or the Lord's Prayer came to be called the signaculum orationis, seal of the prayer; or when the final day of Lenten fasting (the Friday of the sixth week) comes to be called in Egypt the "seal of the fast." (Aidan Kavanagh. Confirmation: Origins and Reform. New York: Pueblo Publishing Company, 1988, p. 7.)

Smudging ceremony (Native American): A cleansing ceremony which employees a cleansing smoke (smudge) of various medicine plants used by the majority of Native North American peoples. It is a ritual cleansing much like the Roman penitential rite. There are several illustrations of smudging on You Tube, e.g. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wgFgCSOc7E8

SPHRAGIS: Greek word: See: SEAL*.

SPIRITU TUO, ET CUM:  Latin: And with your spirit. Formerly we were taught that the "spirit" in this response refers to the "spirit" the minister receives at ordination and has been reserved for deacons, presbyters, and bishops. Consequently, only those ministers with this "spirit" should give a cue for this response.  More recent biblical and philological scholarship says that this is simply a response, as in the exchange:  "'Have a good Day.'  'You too.'"  The Lord be with you.  And also with you. 

SPONSORS: (initiation) Those persons chosen to accompany the candidates when they seek admission to the catechumenate and remain with them to oversee their progress during the catechumenate process until the rite of election; they may also be selected as godparents.

SPOON Cochlear Spoon, (or Scruple Spoon):  The small spoon (still used in many churches in Italy and at the side altars of St. Peter's) to put water in the wine at the preparation of the gifts. (To add more than 15 drops of water was (is?) a mortal sin.) (Cochlear = a small snail shell.)

STAGES: (initiation) The steps through which the catechumen moves forward to full initiation. The process of adult initiation includes three stages: 1) when a person is accepted as a catechumen by the church; 2) when a person becomes one of the "elect" and begins the more immediate preparation for the sacraments of initiation; 3) when a person receives the sacraments of initiation.

SUBSTANCE: (eucharist) That by virtue of which a thing has its determinate nature, which makes it what it is, as distinguished from something else.  It is important to note that this is not the contemporary usage of the word, for example the American Heritage © Dictionary (2002) defines substance as: 1a. That which has mass and occupies space; matter. b. A material of a particular kind or constitution. 2a. Essential nature; essence. b. Gist; heart. 3. That which is solid and practical in character, quality, or importance: a plan without substance. 4. Density; body: Air has little substance. 5. Material possessions; goods; wealth: a person of substance.  -- Meaning number one is what the scholastics would call an accident.  Meaning number two carries something of the scholastic notion of substance but post-modern people do not tend to think metaphysically. 

SYMPATHIZER: (initiation) Those persons seeking to know more about the Christian faith (synonym: inquirers).

SYMBOL: (basic) Something that stands for or represents something else. (This is a very rich -- and consequently difficult -- word with multiple meanings in contemporary usage.)  See:  Chapter d42 Symbol and Metaphor

SYNOD:  The term "synod" stems from two Greek words: "syn," which means "together," and "hodos," which means "way," in other words, to "come together," to "walk together."  (This information is copied from Zenit, September 30, 2001.  SYNODS SINCE VATICAN II:  The institution of the synod of bishops was established by Paul VI on Sept. 15, 1965, in keeping with the request of the Fathers of the Second Vatican Council, to maintain the collegial spirit fostered by the council.   In synod assemblies, the Holy Father and the bishops generally discuss questions relating to the universal Church, although they can also address issues of local Churches. Usually the participants are representatives of the episcopate.  The synod exercises its function primarily as a consultative body under the direct authority of the Pope. He convokes the synod; chooses the topic; designates its members; in general, presides over the assembly; and decides how to implement suggestions made by the bishops.

There are three types of synod sessions: 1) ordinary general assemblies, which attend to matters concerning the whole Church; 2) extraordinary general assemblies, which address issues that need rapid resolution; 3) special assemblies, which focus on problems relating directly to specific Churches or regions.  The Holy Father is the president of the synod. There is also a secretary-general, assisted by an ordinary Council of the General Secretariat, composed of bishops.

There have been 19 synods: nine ordinary, two extraordinary and eight special. The following is a list of all the synods held to date, and the documents stemming from them.

Ordinary synods

1. Revision of the Code of Canon Law (Sept. 29-Oct. 29, 1967). Documents: Institution of the International Theological Commission, and "Ratio Fundamentalis Institutionis Sacerdotalis."

2. Ministerial Priesthood; Justice in the World (Sept. 30-Nov. 6, 1971). Documents on Justice in the World and on the Ministerial Priesthood.

3. Evangelization of the Contemporary World (Sept. 27-Oct. 26, 1974). Documents: Declaration of Synodal Fathers, and Paul VI's apostolic exhortation "Evangelii Nuntiandi."

4. Catechesis in Our Time, Especially of Children and Youth (Sept. 30-Oct. 29, 1977). Document: John Paul II's apostolic exhortation "Catechesi Tradendae."
5. The Christian Family (Sept. 26-Oct. 25, 1980). Document: John Paul II's apostolic exhortation "Familiaris Consortio."

6. Reconciliation and Penance in the Pastoral Mission of the Church (Sept. 29-Oct. 20, 1983). Document: John Paul II's apostolic exhortation "Reconciliatio et Paenitentia."

7. Vocation and Mission of the Laity in the Church and in the World 20 Years after Vatican Council II (Oct. 1-30, 1987). Document: John Paul II's apostolic exhortation "Christifedeles Laici."

8. Formation of Priests in Contemporary Society (Oct. 1-28, 1990). Document: John Paul II's apostolic exhortation "Pastores Dabo Vobis."

9. Consecrated Life and Its Function in the Church and in the World (Oct. 2-29, 1995). Document: John Paul II's apostolic exhortation "Vita Consecrata."

Extraordinary synods

1. Cooperation of Episcopal Conferences with the Holy See and Among Themselves (Sept. 11-Oct. 28, 1968). Documents: Message to Priests and Final Declaration.

2. Commemoration, Evaluation and Promotion of Vatican Council II on the 20th Anniversary of Its Conclusion (Nov. 25-Dec. 8, 1985). Documents: Message to Christians and Final Report of the Synod.

Special synods

1. Special Synod of the Bishops of the Low Countries: The Church's Pastoral Care in Holland in the Present Situation (Jan. 14-31, 1980). Final document of the special synod.

2. Special Assembly for Europe: We Are Witnesses of Christ Who Has Delivered Us (Nov. 28-Dec. 14, 1991).

3. Synod of Bishops Special Assembly for Africa: Africa and Its Mission of Evangelization Toward the Year 2000: You Will Be My Witnesses (April 10-May 8, 1994). Document: apostolic exhortation "Ecclesia in Africa" (Sept. 14, 1995).

4. Synod of Bishops Special Assembly for Lebanon: Christ Is Our Hope: Renewed by His Spirit, in Solidarity, We Witness to His Love (Nov. 26-Dec. 14, 1995). Document: apostolic exhortation "A New Hope for Lebanon (May 10, 1997).

5. Synod of Bishops Special Assembly for America: Encounter with the Living Jesus Christ, the Way to Conversion, Communion and Solidarity in America (Nov. 16 to Dec. 12, 1997). Document: apostolic exhortation "Ecclesia in America" (Jan. 22, 1999).
6. Synod of Bishops Special Assembly for Asia: Jesus Christ the Savior and His Mission of Love and Service in Asia: "That They May Have Life, and that They May Have It in Abundance" (April 19-May 14, 1998). Document: apostolic exhortation "Ecclesia in Asia" (Nov. 6, 1999).

7. Synod of Bishop Special Assembly for Oceania: Jesus Christ and the Peoples of Oceania: To Walk His Way, Tell His Truth, Live His Life (Nov. 22-Feb. 12, 1998).

8. Synod of Bishops 2nd Special Assembly for Europe: Jesus Christ Living in His Church, Source of Hope for Europe (Oct. 1-23, 1999).  Copied from Zenit -- ZE01093021 -- reprinted with permission.

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THEOSIS:   Greek:   "deification"; the goal of human existence; being taken up and absorbed into the inner life of the Trinity; the result of Christian Baptism, and indeed all the sacraments. See my notes at Chapter f31 The Mystery of Death

TRADITION   "Tradition is the living faith of the dead;  traditionalism is the dead faith of the living." (Jaroslav Pelikan)

TRANSFERENCE:  See the Chapter 41 Liturgy and Psychology, Transference:  Your "under the iceberg" is showing

TRANSITION, RITES OF: (initiation) Various rites which may be used between the stages of the catechumenate, even, if circumstances demand, anticipating those ordinarily celebrated with the elect.

TRANSLATION, LITURGICAL:   see Chapter d35 Liturgical Language

TRANSIGNIFICATION: (eucharist) The divine act in which the substance (meaning and power) of the religious sign is transformed in the personal revelation of God.

TRANSUBSTANTIATION: (eucharist) The substance alone of the bread and wine is mysteriously transformed into the substance of the body and blood, while the accidents remain absolutely unchanged, even though they no longer have any proper substance of their own and serve simply as sensible signs of this presence.  See my notes at Chapter e43 The Presence of Christ.

This doctrinal theory is not intended to be a defense of the old (fourth-century) Antiochene theology of conversion of the being of the eucharistic elements.  Rather, it supplies a philosophical explanation for a change of the act of being of the elements of bread and wine by which they not only pass over into the body and blood of Christ but become sacraments of the presence of the whole Christ. (Kilmartin, 64)

St. Augustine in Ennarationes in psalmos 98:9 says:  "Understand spirituality what I have spoken.  It is not the body, which you see, that you will eat, nor drink that blood which is shed... I have commended to you a sacraments; understood spiritually, it will make you live." (Kilmartin, 27)

[PS.  The term "Transubstantiation" was not coined until about 1157 by Roland Bandinelli in his Book of Sentences, and in his Treaties on the Sacrament of the Altar, falsely ascribed to Stephen Berange, written around 1180.] 

TRINITY:   An interesting and helpful metaphor for the trinity is explained in the talk by Dr. Michael Corso "Leadership for the Evolving Face of Catechesis" given at the Sunday opening session of the National Conference for Catechetical Leadership, April 14, 2002.  Music in the mind of the composer, the written score, the performed work.  We are all jazz variations on the theme that is Christ.

-U-

URSAKRAMENT: German term. The primal sacrament, the sign of grace in terms of whom (Christ) there is any other sign of grace.

USCCB: (basic) The United States Conference of Catholic Bishops.  On July 1, 2001, The National Conference of Catholic Bishops (NCCB) changed its name to the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops (USCCB)  With this name change the previously separate entities of the National Conference of Catholic Bishops and the United States Catholic Conference (USCC) have been merged.  Their website may be accessed at  www.usaccb.org.  Before July 1, 2001 the USCCB was two distinct bodies, the USCC, the United States Catholic Conference which was the civil entity of the American catholic bishops and the NCCB which was the  canonical entity. The USCC assisted the NCCB in their work by uniting the church where voluntary, collective action is needed.  Before May 1967 the USCC was the National Catholic Welfare Conference.  In May 1967 the NCWC became the USCC.

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-V-

VALID: (basic) Negative = Invalid.  Contracts can be valid (= the contract is binding) or invalid (= the contract is null and therefore not binding).; contracts either are or they aren't. They exist or they don't exist.  Marriage can be viewed as a contract; marriage then can be valid or invalid; and by analogy, other sacraments can viewed as valid or invalid. This subject is treated at length in Chapter D51 Liturgical Law

VIGIL:   A night watch.

VIMPA:

-W-

WELCOMING:   Ministry of welcoming and liturgical hospitality.  See my notes above under the topic MYSTERION.

WOLVES.  The Parable of the Two Wolves

-Z-

ZIKKRON: (eucharist) Hebrew word: memorial. A memorial where God is present, renewing the covenant. Greek: Anamnesis*.

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Sources

I have assembled this glossary over the past thirty-plus years of teaching and I have forgotten many of the sources which I have copied to make this glossary.  I started this glossary before posting them on a web site ever entered my mind and consequently I was not as careful as I might have been in recording the sources.  I have tried to acknowledge the authors of definitions which are not my own; please bring any omissions to my attention and I will correct them.  The following books contain many of the definitions used in this glossary:

Guzie = Tad Guzie. The Book of Sacramental Basics, Paulist Press, 1981, ISBN 0-8091-2411-4. 135 pp. $6.95.

Kavanagh =  Aidan Kavanagh. Confirmation: Origins and Reform. New York: Pueblo Publishing Company, 1988.  ISBN: 0-916134-88-1. Paper, $12.95. 

McMahon = J. Michael McMahon, The Rite of Christian Initiation of Adults: Liturgical Commentary, Federation of Diocesan Liturgical Commissions, 1986. 99 pp. $11.25.

Made = Murphy Center for Liturgical Research.  Made not Born.  U. of Notre Dame Press. 1976. ISBN 0-268-01337-3 paper. 183 pp. $7.95.

Martimort = Robert Cabie. The Eucharist. New Edition 1986. (The Church at Prayer, Volume II. A. G. Martimort editor. Collegeville: The Liturgical Press, 1986. ISBN 0-8146-1364-0. 253 pp. $14.95.

Mitchell = Nathan Mitchell. Cult and Controversy: The Worship of the Eucharist Outside Mass. New York: Pueblo Publishing Company, 1982. ISBN 0-916134-50-4. 426 pp. $11.95.

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Copyright: Tom Richstatter.  All Rights Reserved.  This page was created by Fr. Thomas Richstatter, O.F.M.  Every effort has been, and is being made to acknowledge sources when the ideas are not my own.  Any failure to comply with the United States Copyright Act (Title 17, United States Code) will be corrected immediately should I become aware of it.  This site was updated on 07/21/17.  Your comments on this site are welcome at trichstatter@franciscan.org