Part 2 History

Chapter d23 Early Medieval [800-1199 CE]

Secular History

Church History

Secular History

Europe's population doubled between 1000 and 1300. Life expectancies were probably not much higher than age 25 around 1000, but closer to 35 by 1300.   (50% of population died before age 12.) 

 

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Church History

Feast of All Souls.  The first feast of intercession for the souls in purgatory was introduced by St. Odilo of Cluny (d. 1048).

1150 CE Peter Lombard   (c. 1100 – July 20, 1160 in Paris) was a scholastic theologian and bishop of the 12th century.  In 1159, he was named bishop of Paris.  Peter Lombard's most famous work was "Libri quatuor sententiarum, the "Book of Sentences." This served as the standard textbook of theology at the medieval universities, from the 1220s until the 16th century. There is no work of Christian literature, except for the Bible itself, that has been commented upon more frequently. All the major medieval thinkers, from Albert the Great and Thomas Aquinas to William of Ockham and Gabriel Biel, were influenced by it. Even the young Martin Luther still wrote glosses on the "Sentences."  ["Peter Lombard." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 9 Feb 2006, 08:49 UTC. 11 Feb 2006, 02:00.]

Origin of our Seven Sacraments  Peter Lombard in the "Sentences" names Baptism, Confirmation, Eucharist, Penance, Extreme Unction, Holy Orders, and Matrimony as sacraments.  These seven are commented on by the scholastics (e.g. Thomas Aquinas) and are later accepted by Trent as THE seven sacraments.   (Funerals:  not a sacrament.).   

Funerals:  not one of the seven sacraments. 

Development of a theology of priesthood

Monastic chapter of faults develops into spiritual direction and Tariff Penance

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© Copyright: Tom Richstatter, Franciscan Province of St. John the Baptist, Cincinnati Ohio, Order of Friars Minor. All Rights Reserved.  This page was created by Fr. Thomas Richstatter, O.F.M.  Every effort has been, and is being made, to acknowledge sources when the ideas are not my own.  Any failure to comply with the United States Copyright Act (Title 17, United States Code) will be corrected immediately should I become aware of it.  This site was updated on 09/04/12 .  Your comments on this site are welcome at tomrichs@psci.net.