Documents and Introductory Materials
Part 3 Theological Issues

Chapter d35 Liturgical Language

Preliminary Questions

Bibliography

History of Liturgical Language

Translation Guidelines

Sacred Language / Everyday Speech

Gender Inclusive

Bi-lingual and Tri-lingual Liturgies

To Think About


Preliminary Questions

St. Augustine:  "Better for you to understand me when I use a 'barbarism,' than for you to return home empty because I was too 'literary'."   (Taken from Nathan Mitchell, "The Amen Corner", Worship, 77:3, May 2003, p 250.)

St. Augustine:  "Popular language itself is very often a teacher of salvation." (Taken from Nathan Mitchell, "The Amen Corner" Worship, 77:3, May 2003, p 251.)

Pope Paul VI:  "The Church has sacrificed its native tongue, Latin, a language that is sacred, measured, beautiful, richly expressive, and graceful. The Church has made the sacrifice of an age-old tradition and above all of unity in language among diverse peoples to bow to a higher universality, an outreach to all peoples.."  (DOL, 26, p. 114.  Taken from Nathan Mitchell, "The Amen Corner" Worship, 77:3, May 2003, p 254.)

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Bibliography

Comme le prevoit: On the Translation of Liturgical Texts for Celebrations with a Congregation (1969), The Liturgy Documents, volume II, Chapter 8.pp 227-242.

Liturgiam authenticam:  The Fifth Instruction for the Right Application of the Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy of the Second Vatican Council. March 28, 2001. [This fifth instruction deals with the issue of translations.]

"To Speak as a Christian Community: Pastoral Message on Inclusive Language (1989)," The Liturgy Documents, volume II, Chapter 9. pp 243-248.

"Criteria for the Evaluation of Inclusive Language Translations of Scriptural Texts Proposed for Liturgical Use (1990), The Liturgy Documents, volume II, Chapter 10." pp249-258.

Donald W. Trautman "Roman and ICEL,"  America, March 4 2000 (182:7) pp 7-ll.  [The Most Rev. Donald W. Trautman, bishop of Erie PA, is a former chairman of the Committee on Liturgy of the USCCB.]

An inclusive language Psalter is published by Psalter, Carmelite Monastery, 2500 Cold Spring Road, Indianapolis, IN 46222.  There is both a 4-week Psalter and a volume called "Seasonal Supplement with Special Feasts and Commemorations."  More information can be found at The Carmelites of Indianapolis' web site:  http://www.praythenews.com 

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History of Liturgical Language

Christianity is a Religion in Translation

From "day one" Christianity was a "religion in translation".  No one is absolutely certain what language Jesus spoke (probably Aramaic with a few Latin phrases) because this fact was not important for the early Church. 

Some religions (Islam for example) are essentially tied to one language (e.g. Islam: Arabic).  The Quran is always (and only) in Arabic.  A translation of the text is NOT the Quran.

Christianity, however,  is not tied to any one language.  The Bible, for example, is the Bible whether it is in Greek, Latin, Syrian, Arabic, English, Spanish.  Why is this so?  Because Christianity is the only religion in which God became one of us!  The incarnation implies that languages, customs, cultures are GOOD. 

Wherever the Gospel was preached, it was preached in the native tongue.  And the Bible was translated into the local language.  And God was "named" in the indigenous tongue: God, Dios, Allah, Dieu, Gott, Deus.   The liturgy was celebrated in the language of the people.  (See: Whose Religion is Christianity? The Gospel beyond the West by Lamin Sanneh)

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History of the evolution of liturgical language 

Earliest Church documents (e.g. Letters of St. Paul) are in Greek -- because Greek was the "Lingua franca" of the time.

In the 3rd & 4th centuries -- Latin becomes the "lingua franca" the "universal vernacular" of the Roman Empire.  The Bible, the liturgy, the Mass, etc are translated into Latin.  They used the everyday language of the people.  There was no "sacred language" because all language was sacred because of the incarnation.

St. Augustine:  "Better for you to understand me when I use a 'barbarism,' than for you to return home empty because I was too 'literary'."   (Taken from Nathan Mitchell's "The Amen Corner" Worship, 77:3, May 2003, p 250.)

St. Augustine:  "Popular language itself is very often a teacher of salvation." (Ibid.  p 251.)

During the 7th century local vernacular  languages develop in Europe (Italian / French / Spanish, etc.)

In 787 CE Charlemagne ordered that schools be established throughout the Roman Empire so that clergy and laity might learn to read and write. He wanted everyone to be able to say the Lord's Prayer and the Creed in their own language, but he decreed that priests were to say Mass only in Latin despite the fact that it was no longer the spoken language.  This is the beginning of "sacred language".

With "sacred language" comes the "clergy / laity" distinction.  Those who "don't speak the language" are distanced to "observers."  The meaning of the Eucharistic is no longer evident from the words of the prayers and the Eucharist becomes "Drama of Calvary".  The ritual elements interpreted allegorically.  (e.g. the priest washing his hands = Pilate washing his hands after condemning Jesus;  the priest going from one side of the altar to the other = Jesus being lead from Pilate to Herod, etc.)  Priest is understood to takes the role of Christ in the drama.  "Alter Christus" shifts from the baptized to the ordained.  In the Rite of Ordination the priest's hands are anointed, and henceforth only his sacred hands can handle the sacred elements.  Under the Iceberg there are related developments in Christology:  Christ's divinity is emphasized to the diminishment of Christ's humanity.

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The reformers attempted to restore the Eucharist to the people by praying in a language they can understand.  Rome decided to keep the "sacred language".  The discussion (!) between Rome and the Reformers moves from "It would be good if you would no longer pray in Latin..."  to "You do not have the power to determine the language of prayer...."  Rome responds:  "I do have the power; and to prove it:  Mass (and all liturgical prayer) stays in Latin!"

Top of the Iceberg  Mass is in Latin.   Under the Iceberg  God becomes more distant.  Religion is the work of the priests.  Christian living becomes "super"-natural.  Latin becomes sacred.  The Liturgy is the concern of the clergy.   The divinity of Christ is emphasized to the detriment of his humanity and he is no longer seen as "mediator" between God and Creation.  Mary and the saints fill in the devotional space vacated by Jesus.

The Mass book for the priest becomes the "Missal" -- the book contains the entire Mass: the hymns, antiphons, readings, prayers, responses, etc all said by the priest.

Responding to the Reformation, the Council of Trent decrees that books containing the official Latin text of the Mass and Sacraments be published.   "In the third quarter of the 16th century, the content and extent of the official liturgy were determined in a new way by the issuance of authoritative liturgical books intended for the first time for uniform use in almost all the churches of the Latin rite.  Whatever did not find a place in the books of the new worldwide Roman rite -- no matter how widely practiced in other parts of the Latin West and no matter what its propriety and utility -- was considered in a legal sense non-liturgical." (Dehne, pp. 332)

As Latin becomes the "official" language of the Church's prayer, the prayer itself takes on some of the characteristics of the Latin language.  "Nor must we overlook the characteristic nobility of Latin formal structure. Its concise, varied and harmonious style, full of majesty and dignity makes for singular clarity and impressiveness of expression." (Veterum Sapientia)  This "formal structure," this "conciseness,"  might be good for the expression of dogma, but it is not good for the expression of religious feelings and emotion.  "The devotions compensated for a deficit in the ability of the official Roman liturgy to engage the emotions of believers." (Dehne, pp. 333)

The Liturgy is in Latin as contained in the Official (Latin) Books, prayed by the priest (in Latin).  The people turn to popular devotions.  These prayers are in the language of the people.   They are directed to their needs, culture, devotional piety. 

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The Liturgical Movement:  1900-1960   The first half of the century was marked by a great interest in the history of the liturgy.  There was much scholarly research into the historical sources of the liturgy and many new (that is "old") liturgical documents were discovered and analyzed.   Scholars became aware that the Mass was always and everywhere (until Charlemagne in the West) celebrated in the native tongue of the people.  Various movements arose to foster the use of the vernacular in the liturgy (e.g. the "Vernacular Society" in the USA.)

When Pope John XXIII announced that he was going to call an Ecumenical Council, hopes were high that the vernacular would be discussed and permitted.   There was much discussion and lobbying for the vernacular.  In this context it was somewhat of a surprise when Pope John issued the encyclical Veterum Sapientia  which decrees that the Liturgy will always remain in Latin and no one is to speak against this.

Veterum Sapientia, Apostolic Constitution of Pope John XXIII. February 22, 1962.  http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_xxiii/apost_constitutions/documents/hf_j-xxiii_apc_19620222_veterum-sapientia_lt.html

"The wisdom of the ancient world [Veterum Sapientia], enshrined in Greek and Roman literature, and the truly memorable teaching of ancient peoples, served, surely, to herald the dawn of the Gospel which God's Son, the judge and teacher of grace and truth, the light and guide of the human race, proclaimed on earth.  Such was the view of the Church Fathers and Doctors. In these outstanding literary monuments of antiquity, they recognized man's spiritual preparation for the supernatural riches which Jesus Christ communicated to mankind to give history its fulfillment.  Thus the inauguration of Christianity did not mean the obliteration of man's past achievements. Nothing was lost that was in any way true, just, noble and beautiful.  ... 

"The Church has ever held the literary evidences of this wisdom in the highest esteem. She values especially the Greek and Latin languages in which wisdom itself is cloaked, as it were, in a vesture of gold. She has likewise welcomed the use of other venerable languages, which flourished in the East. For these too have had no little influence on the progress of humanity and civilization. By their use in sacred liturgies and in versions of Holy Scripture, they have remained in force in certain regions even to the present day, bearing constant witness to the living voice of antiquity. ...  Of its very nature Latin is most suitable for promoting every form of culture among peoples. It gives rise to no jealousies. It does not favor any one nation, but presents itself with equal impartiality to all and is equally acceptable to all. ... Nor must we overlook the characteristic nobility of Latin formal structure. Its concise, varied and harmonious style, full of majesty and dignity makes for singular clarity and impressiveness of expression. ... 

"For these reasons the Apostolic See has always been at pains to preserve Latin, deeming it worthy of being used in the exercise of her teaching authority as the splendid vesture of her heavenly doctrine and sacred laws.  ...  She further requires her sacred ministers to use it, for by so doing they are the better able, wherever they may be, to acquaint themselves with the mind of the Holy See on any matter, and communicate the more easily with Rome and with one another.  ... 

"[Therefore]  in seminaries ...  the major sacred sciences shall be taught in Latin, which, as we know from many centuries of use, must be considered most suitable for explaining with the utmost facility and clarity the most difficult and profound ideas and concepts.  ... Hence professors of these sciences in universities or seminaries are required to speak Latin and to make use of textbooks written in Latin."   http://www.adoremus.org/VeterumSapientia.html

In 1962 I was in first theology and I remember the professors trying to do this -- but they could not and gave up after a few days.  However, our textbooks for dogma, moral theology, and canon law  were (and had always been) in Latin.  Following the publication of Veterum Sapientia, many who favored the vernacular lost their positions, especially in the Roman curia. 

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The Second Vatican Council   Pope John XXIII, who inaugurated the Second Vatican Council in 1962, died on June 3, 1963. According to an account of Archbishop Annibale Bugnini, a peritus to the Council and later secretary of the Congregation for Divine Worship (1969-75), just before the Council there was considerable controversy over use of Latin. He describes a plenary meeting in April 1961, where the matter was discussed:

For more than two hours on the appointed day, the periti, one from each country, pleaded - some of them in sorrowful tones, including Father Godfrey Diekmann, an American Benedictine, and Professor Frederick McManus of the Catholic University in Washington, D.C. - that the door be opened to the mother tongues. It was an evening of deep emotion; all were shaken, being deeply moved by what had been said and heard. The conclusion reached in this debate was ultimately set forth in Chapter I of the Constitution on the Liturgy, where the question is answered in a way that reconciles the rights of Latin and the need of the vernaculars in celebrations with the people (Annibale Bugnini, The Reform of the Liturgy, Liturgical Press 1990 pp 24-25.  Cited from http://www.adoremus.org/VeterumSapientia.html )

The Constitution on the Liturgy reflects the tension among the bishops; yet opens the door to the vernacular:

36. 1. Particular law remaining in force, the use of the Latin language is to be preserved in the Latin rites.

2. But since the use of the mother tongue, whether in the Mass, the administration of the sacraments, or other parts of the liturgy, frequently may be of great advantage to the people, the limits of its employment may be extended. This will apply in the first place to the readings and directives, and to some of the prayers and chants, according to the regulations on this matter to be laid down separately in subsequent chapters.

3. These norms being observed, it is for the competent territorial ecclesiastical authority mentioned in Art. 22, 2, to decide whether, and to what extent, the vernacular language is to be used; their decrees are to be approved, that is, confirmed, by the Apostolic See. And, whenever it seems to be called for, this authority is to consult with bishops of neighboring regions which have the same language.

4. Translations from the Latin text into the mother tongue intended for use in the liturgy must be approved by the competent territorial ecclesiastical authority mentioned above. 

Within a few years, the liturgy was being celebrated almost universally in the vernacular languages.  Note that this is only one year after the publication of the encyclical Veterum Sapientia which said that this should never happen!  (Pope John XXIII spent much of his life -- after he was dismissed from the seminary faculty -- in the diplomatic corps and he know how things get done in Rome.)

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The Constitution on the Liturgy stated that "it is for the competent territorial ecclesiastical authority  ...  to decide ... to what extent  the vernacular language is to be used ...  And, whenever it seems to be called for, this authority is to consult with bishops of neighboring regions which have the same language.  This "consulting with neighboring regions having the same language" (SC 36,3) is the origin and the rational for the formation of the International Commission on English in the Liturgy (ICEL). 

ICEL is a joint commission of the Catholic Bishops Conferences of  Antilles, Australia, Bangladesh, Canada, Cepac (Fiji Islands, Rarotonga, Samoa and Tokelau, Tonga), England and Wales, Gambia-Liberia-Sierra Leone, Ghana, India, Ireland, Kenya, Malaysia-Singapore, Malawi, New Zealand, Nigeria, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea and The Solomons, Philippines, Scotland, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Uganda, United States of America, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.

Further Collaboration was sought in 1969 through the International Consultation of English Texts (ICET) to give uniform translations to the prayers that are used by Roman Catholics and Protestants.   In 1985, the English Language Liturgical Consultation (ELLC) was formed to give voice to the English-speaking Churches world wide. ELLC is a successor body to ICET.  ELLC consists of the Australian Consultation on Liturgy (6 churches); the Canadian Churches Coordinating Group on Worship (5 churches); Consultation on Common Texts (10 USA churches); ICEL (26 conferences of Roman Catholic bishops); the Joint Consultation within New Zealand (4 churches); the Joint Liturgical Group (9 churches in Great
Britain); and representatives of the South African Church Unity Commission (4 churches).

The 1969-2008 English liturgical translations (Mass, Sacraments, Hours, etc) are the work of the original team at ICEL together with ICET and ELLEC.   This has important, positive implications for the movement toward Church Unity.  All English Speaking Christians using same prayers, same lectionary, etc...

After these translations had been in use for about 10-15 years, the bishops of the United States (and all the ICEL bishops) though it was time to evaluate the translations, beginning with the Mass prayers. 

Compare "Comme le Prevoit with "Liturgiam Authenticam."For a comparison of the ICEL translations of some of the prayers for the Eucharist in 1998 and 2010 see  http://www.whatifwejustsaidwait.org/1998missal.htm Few Catholics are aware of the fact that this [2010] is not the first time a new English translation of the Missal has been prepared.  In the 1980s--just a little over a decade after the release of the 1973 ICEL--the process of translation began again, in an effort to provide a more accurate and complete translation of the Roman Missal  The translation--the result of international cooperation among bishops, scholars, liturgists, Latinists, and other experts--was completed in 1998.  It received the approval of all the English-speaking conferences of the world; in ten of the eleven conferences, its approval was unanimous or near-unanimous.  The translation was first ignored, and later rejected by the Congregation for Divine Worship upon the appearance of liturgiam Authenticam, the instruction calling for a formal, or literal rather than a dynamic approach to liturgical translation.  Bishop Maurice Taylor, chair of ICEL from 1997-2002, tells the whole story in his very readable book, It's the Eucharist, Thank God, available from Decani Books.  John Wilkins' "Lost in Translation: the bishops, the Vatican and the English Liturgy" published in Commonweal in 2005, also tells the story and is available here.  (copied from the above cited website)


...under the iceberg
Council reaffirms the Incarnation
Baptism rediscovered
Laity re-enter the church
Gaudium et Spes -- The Church [re-enters] the Modern World
1980's [1980-1999]
After 15 years, it was time to evaluate
"Mystery of Faith" study commissioned by the USCCB
Coordinated by the FDLC (Rev. Thomas Richstatter, OFM, Executive Secretary)
ICEL begins work on new translations
Franciscan Commission for Liturgical Research begins revision of OFM liturgy

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2001  Prevoit
Sea change in personnel in Rome
ICEL personnel fired
New norms published for "how to translate"
Comme le Prevoit  (Paul VI) replaced by
Liturgiam Authenticam (Cardinal Ratzinger)
April 2002, Vox Clara established
END OF ONE ERA AND BEGINNING OF ANOTHER
Guideline for Liturgical Translations
1969 January 25
Comme le Prevoit
Translations are to be adapted to the culture.
Translations from the Latin are the "school" for original compositions.
2001 March 28
Liturgiam Authenticam
Translations are to be word for word from the Latin.
One must be able to go from the English back to the Latin for English is often used to translate Latin into other languages.
Guideline for Liturgical Translations
1969 January 25
Comme le Prevoit
Translations are to be in a language people understand--elegant, but contemporary.
2001 March 28
Liturgiam Authenticam
Translations are to be in a sacred language different from every day speech. ...under the iceberg
Jesus returns to heaven
God becomes "out there"
Religion becomes "super"-natural
Language becomes sacred
Greeting
1973 ICEL
The Lord be with you.
The people reply:
And also with you.
Latin linguists and Scripture Scholars study the text and determine that the text means: And also with you.
2012 ICEL
The Lord be with you.
The people reply:
And with your spirit.
Word for word, literal translation of "et cum spiritu tuo."
Nicene Creed
1973 ICEL
We believe...
Of one being with the Father
Was born of the Virgin Mary I believe
Consubstantial with the Father

Was incarnate of the Virgin Mary
Acclamation following the Preface
First (current) ICEL
Holy, Holy, Holy Lord, God of power and might.
ICEL thought "hosts" for most people means "communion bread" and so translated for "meaning."
New ICEL
Holy, Holy, Holy,
Lord God of hosts.
Traditional translation of "Dominus Deus Sabaoth. "
Will require people to learn new music
Epiclesis (EP 1)
1969 ICEL
Bless and approve our offering;
make it acceptable to you,
an offering in spirit and in truth.
Let it become for us
the body and blood of Jesus Christ,
your only Son, our Lord.
New ICEL
We pray, O God,
deign to make this offering in every way
blessed, consecrated, approved,
spiritual, and acceptable,

that it may become for us
the Body and Blood of your most beloved Son, our Lord Jesus Christ.
Epiclesis (EP 1)
First (current) ICEL
Two sentences to aid oral proclamation
English syntax
Berakah -- "Bless" -- reflects literary form
"Acceptable"
body and blood
Jesus Christ, your only Son, our Lord.
New ICEL
All one sentence
"deign"
Reflects Latin sentence structure and syntax
"blessed, consecrated, approved, spiritual, and acceptable"
Body and Blood
your most beloved Son, our Lord Jesus Christ.
Narrative of the Institution
Hic est enim calix sanguinis mei, novi et aeterni testamenti: mysterium fidei: qui pro vobis et pro multis effundetur in remissionem peccatorum.
Take this, all of you, and drink from it, for this is the chalice of my blood, the blood of the new and eternal covenant, which will be poured out for you and for many for the
forgiveness of sins.
Narrative of the Institution
Calix = Latin for a "common" cup (?)
mysterium fidei -- removed from the English, (non biblical) but is in the Latin!
pro multis = for many. Latin means "for the many, the multitudes, for all."
French: pour le multitude...
CDF when asked said: "The priest should explain that "for many" means "for all."
Invitation to the Lord's Prayer
First (current) ICEL
Let us pray with confidence to the Father in the words our Savior gave us.
Our Father...
New ICEL
Taught by commands that bring salvation and formed by divine instruction, we have the courage to say: Our Father...

The New ICEL Translations

Text is "sacred" and not like common, ordinary speech
Text is a more literal translation of the Latin and closer to the Latin word order.
Text can be used to translate Latin into other languages.

Loss of ecumenical translations
Will require new books and new music
Will take some time to memorize
Many will ask if the effort is worth the costTranslators have traditionally followed two methods. One is known as formal equivalence
and the other as dynamic equivalence.  In the formal equivalence method the translator renders each word of the original language into the receptor language and seeks to preserve the original word order and sentence structure as much as possible.  In the dynamic equivalency approach the translator seeks to translate though-for-thought as contrasted with word-for-word translation.  The dynamic equivalency approach requires that the original texts be accurately interpreted and then rendered in understandable idiom.  The emphasis is not on the meaning of an individual word or phrase, but on the whole unit of meaning or passage.  The document
Liturgiam Authenticam disapproves of dynamic equivalence, preferring the more literal approach." (These comments were made by Bishop Donald W. Trautman, chairman of the USCCB's Committee on the Liturgy, during the annual Godfrey Diekmann Lecture given at St. John's University in Collegeville, Minnesota on March 27, 2006, "The Relationship of the Active Participation of the Assembly to Liturgical Translations."  It has been published inWorship July 2006 [80:4] pp 290-390.  The quotation above is found on page 303.)  The method of dynamic equivalence had been prescribed by Pope Paul VI in the instruction Comme le Prevoit
(January 25, 1969).  "From the beginning, this one Church has been marked by a great diversity which comes from both the variety of God's gifts and the diversity of those who receive them. Within the unity of the People of God a multiplicity of peoples and cultures is gathered together." (CCC 814) "  (Comme le Prevoit, 6)... A faithful translation, therefore, cannot be judged on the basis of individual words: the total context of this specific act of communication must be kept in mind, as well as the literary form proper to the respective language. (7) Thus, in the case of liturgical communication, it is necessary to take into account not only the message to be conveyed, but also the speaker, the audience, and the style. Translations, therefore, must be faithful to the art of communication in all its various aspects, but especially in regard to the message itself, in regard to the audience for which it is intended, and in regard to the manner of expression." (Consilium, Comme le Prevoit, instruction on the translation of liturgical texts for celebrations with a congregation, January 25, 1969. Notitiae 5 (1969) 3-12. DOL numbers 843-844.) E.g. Holy Spirit as a refrigerium (cold damp wind / refrigerator) in Palestine and in Alaska.  A "cold, damp wind" is perhaps more welcome in Palestine than in Alaska.

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Liturgiam Authenticam -- Translations are to be word for word.
One must be able to go from the English back to the Latin.

Comme le Prevoit: --Bless and approve our offering;
make it acceptable to you,
an offering in spirit and in truth.
Let it become for us
the body and blood of Jesus Christ,
your only Son, our Lord. We pray, O God,
deign to make this offering in every way
blessed, consecrated, approved,
spiritual, and acceptable,
that it may become for us
the Body and Blood of your most
beloved Son, our Lord Jesus Christ. Let us pray with confidence to the Father
in the words our Savior gave us.
Our Father...
Taught by commands that bring salvation and formed by divine instruction,
we have the courage to say:
Our Father...

 

S

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Gender Inclusive Language

"Criteria for the Evaluation of Inclusive Language Translations of Scriptural Texts Proposed for Liturgical Use (1990), The Liturgy Documents, volume II, Chapter 10." pp249-258.

Donald W. Trautman "Roman and ICEL,"  America, March 4 2000 (182:7) pp 7-ll.  [The Most Rev. Donald W. Trautman, bishop of Erie PA, is a former chairman of the Committee on Liturgy of the USCCB.]

An inclusive language Psalter is published by Psalter, Carmelite Monastery, 2500 Cold Spring Road, Indianapolis, IN 46222.  There is both a 4-week Psalter and a volume called "Seasonal Supplement with Special Feasts and Commemorations."  More information can be found at The Carmelites of Indianapolis' web site:  http://www.praythenews.com 

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Sacred Language / Everyday Speech

St. Augustine:  "Better for you to understand me when I use a 'barbarism,' than for you to return home empty because I was too 'literary'."   (Taken from Nathan Mitchell, "The Amen Corner", Worship, 77:3, May 2003, p 250.)

St. Augustine:  "Popular language itself is very often a teacher of salvation." (Taken from Nathan Mitchell, "The Amen Corner" Worship, 77:3, May 2003, p 251.)

Pope Paul VI:  "The Church has sacrificed its native tongue, Latin, a language that is sacred, measured, beautiful, richly expressive, and graceful. The Church has made the sacrifice of an age-old tradition and above all of unity in language among diverse peoples to bow to a higher universality, an outreach to all peoples.."  (DOL, 26, p. 114.  Taken from Nathan Mitchell, "The Amen Corner" Worship, 77:3, May 2003, p 254.)

 

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Bi-Lingual and Tri-lingual Liturgies

These are difficult

 

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To Think About

1. What do you think about...

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Copyright: Tom Richstatter, Franciscan Province of St. John the Baptist, Cincinnati Ohio, Order of Friars Minor. All Rights Reserved.  This page was created by Fr. Thomas Richstatter, O.F.M.  Every effort has been, and is being made, to acknowledge sources when the ideas are not my own.  Any failure to comply with the United States Copyright Act (Title 17, United States Code) will be corrected immediately should I become aware of it.  This site was updated on 06/10/15 .  Your comments are welcome at trichstatter@franciscan.org