Eucharist
Part 2 History

Chapter e20 Eucharist: Historical Overview

Ten Finger History

For an explanation of the divisions of the History Grid, see Chapter d21 Overview of the History of Liturgy
1. Apostolic [0-399]  Accusations of being atheists.  Domestic eucharist.  All recline at table.  Kiss of peace after liturgy of the Word.  All communicate.   Apologists start to adopt "religious" terms (e.g. "sacrifice").   Clement of Rome.  Ignatius of Antioch. The Letters of Polycarp to the Philippians.  The Epistle of Barnabas.  The Shepherd of Hermas.  The Didache.
2. Patristic [400-799]  Goes public.  All stand for prayer.  All bring bread, wine, gifts.  Bishop/pastor improvises rite.  Kiss of peace before communion.  All communicate. Eucharistic fast.  Beginning of ornamental ceremony.  Expanding numbers of the baptized brings with it passivity.
3. Early Medieval [800-1199]  Beginning of written texts.  Rites form around the city centers.  Priest goes from presbyter to sacerdos.  Mass understood in terms of "sacrifice".  Loss of offertory procession. Few communicate.  1079 Oath of Berengarius.  Devotions multiply, passion, Corpus Christi, saints, Mary.
4. Medieval [1200-1299] Texts and collections begin to be formed into the Sacramentaries.  Solemn High Mass.  Highly ornamental ceremony.   People watch and adore.  Kiss of peace lost.  Elevation of host.  1214 Constitution I of the Fourth Lateran Council. 1208 Profession of Faith prescribed for the Waldenses by Pope Innocent III.  St. Gertrude 1256?-1302.
5. Late Medieval [1300-1499] Unification desired by civil governments.  Low Mass typical.  Private Masses for souls in purgatory. People kneel throughout the Mass.  Elevation of chalice added.  Genuflection before the Blessed Sacrament.  Proliferation of votive Masses.  Exposition and Benediction. 1414-1418 Council of Constance: Decree on Communion Under One Kind 
6. Reformation [1500-1699]  Reformers:  Go "back to the basics."  Replace meaningless symbols with Scripture and preaching.  Rome: Don't throw out the baby with the bath water. Unification and central control of rites. Rites become fixed.  Forty Hours Devotion.
7. After Trent [1700-1899] Pope makes rubric; bishop enforces it; priest keeps it. No Lectionary.  Mortal sin to miss a) offertory, b) consecration, and c) priest's communion. Exaltation of cult of Sacrament.  Eucharist as court ceremony, e.g. devotional exercise before a monstrance.
8. Before Vatican II [1900-1959] Creed Code Cult. Gueranger. Odo Casel. Jungmann. 1905 Pius X frequent Communion; 1910 lowered age for first Communion. 1947 Pius XII Mediator Dei. Church = Us.  Participation of "us" = talk (dialogue Mass) and eat (frequent [=more than 4 times] Communion).
9. Vatican II [1960-1975] Active Participation.  Vernacular.  Scripture.  Two part structure:  Liturgy of the Word and Liturgy of the Eucharist. Symbol. Standing for prayer. General Intercessions. Procession with gifts. Restored. Kiss of peace. All communicate.  Communion from the Cup restored.  Simpler ceremony. Liturgy shapes "Church".  "Lex orandi" axiom rediscovered.  
10. After Vatican II [1975-2050]  Four part structure:  Gathering, Story Telling, Meal Sharing, Commissioning.  Discovery of the Holy Spirit.  Incarnation restored in balance with crucifixion.  Scripture studies begin to influence theology.  New understandings of Sacrifice and Atonement.  Theosis.    

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