Part 2 History

Chapter e26 The Reformation Period [1500-1699]

Preliminary Questions





The Reformation

Jaspers and Cuming

To Think About

Preliminary Questions

How do you explain the relation between the Eucharist and the once and for all event of Jesus' death and resurrection? 

"For Christ did not enter into a sanctuary made by hands, a copy of the true one, but heaven itself, that he might now appear before God on our behalf. Not that he might offer himself repeatedly, as the high priest enters each year into the sanctuary with blood that is not his own; if that were so, he would have had to suffer repeatedly from the foundation of the world. But now once for all he has appeared at the end of the ages to take away sin by his sacrifice. Just as it is appointed that human beings die once, and after this the judgment, so also Christ, offered once to take away the sins of many, will appear a second time, not to take away sin but to bring salvation to those who eagerly await him." (Hebrews 9:24-28 (Second Reading, 32nd Sunday of Cycle B)

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Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification by the Lutheran World Federation and the Catholic Church, October 31, 1999.  The complete text of this very important document can be found on the Vatican Website.  An understanding of "justification," "grace," and "sacrifice" are essential to understanding the background to the question "How is the Eucharist sacrificial?"

Cabiť, Robert. The Eucharist, New Edition 1986. Vol II of The Church at Prayer, G. Martimort editor. Collegeville: The Liturgical Press, 1986, pp 149-186.

Dix, Gregory. The Shape of the Liturgy. London: Dacre Press, 1970, pp 613-734.

Franklin, William R. "Five Affirmations on the Eucharist as Sacrifice" Worship. 69:5, September 1995, pp 386-390.

Jasper, R. C. D. and Cuming, G. J. Prayers of the Eucharist: Early and Reformed. Third Revised Edition 1987. New York: Pueblo Publishing Company, 1987, #25-43 pp 177-314.

Mitchell, Nathan. Cult and Controversy: The Worship of the Eucharist Outside Mass. Collegeville: The Liturgical Press [A Pueblo Book], 1982, pp 129-200.

Osborne, Kenan. The Christian Sacraments of Initiation (New York: Paulist Press, 1987), pp 212-225.

Price, Charles P. "Anamnesis and Sacrifice in Episcopal Ecumenical Dialogues" Worship. 69:5, September 1995, pp 391-393.

Pierce, Joanne M. "The Eucharist as Sacrifice: Some Contemporary Roman Catholic Reflections" Worship. 69:5, September 1995, pp 394-405.

Thomas Richstatter, O.F.M. "Who Will Be Saved? A Catholic View of Salvation" Catholic Update, Cincinnati: St. Anthony Messenger Press, April, 1994. C0494.

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Reformation [1500-1699]  Reformers:  Go "back to the basics."  Replace meaningless symbols with Scripture and preaching.  Rome: Don't throw out the baby with the bath water. Unification and central control of rites. Rites become fixed.  Forty Hours Devotion.

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The Reformation

1. The principle issue is: What role do our "Good Works" play in salvation? Are we saved by faith alone, or saved by our good works?

2. If we are saved by faith alone, there is no need to keep "repeating" [important word] the Sacrifice of Calvary.  Salvation is not earned (bought?) by good works and/or indulgences.

3. Reformers: Back to basics; remove "magic" symbols.  Counter-Reformers:  Which symbols are the "magic" ones?  Don't throw out the baby with the bath water.  

4. Today, we have moved beyond this seeming contradiction.  On October 31, 1999 German Lutheran Bishop Christian Krause, president of the Lutheran World Federation, and Catholic Cardinal Edward Cassidy, president of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity, signed "The Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification" in Augsburg, Germany.  The text states that we both believe: "By grace alone, in faith in Christ's saving work and not because of any merit on our part, we are accepted by God and receive the Holy Spirit, who renews our hearts while equipping us and calling us to good works."   Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification by the Lutheran World Federation and the Catholic Church, October 31, 1999.  The complete text of this very important document can be found on the Vatican Website.  An understanding of "justification," "grace," and "sacrifice" are essential to understanding the background to the question "How is the Eucharist sacrificial?"

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Jaspers and Cuming

25. Ulrich Zwingli

There are actually two worship services outlined in this section. The first one, "An Attack upon the Canon of the Mass", is the reformers' early attempt to do away with the Mass. The service follows many of the parts of the old Mass up to the Sanctus. The canon is replaced by four prayers that, together, are roughly the length of the Roman canon. The first prayer (184a) is anamnesis of the saving work of Jesus Christ, and it concludes with the assembly joining to pray the Lord's Prayer. The second prayer (184c) is an epiclesis of sorts, calling the Spirit on the people (185a) if not the elements. The third prayer (185b) is an anamnesis of Jesus' saving work and a confession of faith in Him. The final prayer (186a) is a prayer of humble access, asking those who participate in the Lord's supper be made worthy to do so, leading into the words of institution.

The second service, "The Lord's Supper", is a later revision after no one was happy with the first one---it too closely resembled the Roman liturgy the Reformers had done away with. This was no longer called the Mass, but rather the Lord's Supper. In this service, everything is very simple, rather short, and rather plain---there are no vestments, Latin, nothing of the old rite. There is nothing even resembling the Roman canon. After a liturgy of the word, there is a prayer of humble access like the one above, then the words of institution and communion. This liturgy is only celebrated four times a year---Easter, Pentecost, during autumn, and Christmas.

What is most interesting about these prayers is the theology behind them. Zwingli did not believe that Jesus Christ could be present both in heaven and in the consecrated elements. For him, God's presence was found in Sacred Scripture, and the memorial of the Lord's Supper was simply something to aid the worshippers, not a means of God's grace.  The Bible was the real spiritual food, not the sacrament.

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26. Martin Luther

27. Olavus Petri

This Swedish mass was written by Olavus Petri and appeared in Stockhom in 1531.  His rite was the first Lutheran rite to replace the priest's confiteor with a confession made in the venacular by the congregation.  This mass replaced the Latin low mass.  After several years it also replaced the Latin high mass, but took some of the features of the high mass such as adding prefaces, a sermon and moving the Sanctus back to its traditional place.  This rite was revised by Petri's younger brother in 1571 and is still in use today.

God is named "holy Lord" (202b), "almighty Father" (202b), "everlasting God" (202b) and "heavenly Father" (202d).  This eucharistic prayer moves around some of the elements and eliminates others.  It begins with the dialogue on 202a.  There is no preface and the Sanctus is moved to after the institution narrative (203a).  The text that follows the dialogue (202b) begins like the post Sanctus in that it says, "Truly it is meet, right and blessed that we should in all places give you thanks and praise...".  Additionally this remembrance has a very penitential feel to it: "when by reason of sins we were all in so bad a case that nothing but damnation and eternal death awaited us" (202b).  So the remembrance begins at the incarnation and it focuses on Jesus born as a man, Jesus having our sins laid upon him, Jesus dying so we won't undergo eternally death and Jesus being raised to conquer sin and death (202b-c).  This leads into the institution narrative (202c-d) that includes an elevation of the bread and the wine.  Following the narrative the Sanctus comes and then the Lord's prayer.  The epiclesis is eliminated in this rite (actually there is no mention of the Holy Spirit).  Also eliminated is the offertory, the intercessions and the doxology.  The emphasis is on remembering the Last Supper and not on recreating it (203a).  The mention of the people comes in 202c: "so likewise shall all those who put their trust in him overcome sin and death and through him attain to everlasting life."

28. Martin Bucer

This Eucharistic prayer dates from 1539.  It was daring.  It was in German, instead of Latin.  It was said facing the congregation by the pastor--not priest--vested in only a cassock and black gown (Even they couldn't get rid of all the accretions of centuries.).
    Here we have three choices of prayers the minister could take--besides making his own on the spot.  These three prayers have much in common.  The minister addresses God the Father.  The intercessions are for rather practical things, such as for the king.  The gifts are first prepared in silence.  The epiclesis is not invoked upon the gifts, but upon the people present.  A constant accent on personal faith, rather than the power of the Spirit dominates.  The minister prays for a change in the people.  He prays that they are receiving the body and blood of the Lord, which is in heaven.  The bread and wine, then, have remained just bread and wine.  It is the people's faith which has worked any kind of change.  The institution narrative is the last thing read, before the distribution of the Lord's Supper--not Eucharist.
    The people are named as rotten, dirty, depraved sinners.  That is why they need to be changed.  In fact, their sins are only pardoned, not taken away.
    The prayers do include some mentions of Christ's saving work, but not very much.
    All in all, these prayers are for Jesus and me, my faith in God, not for God and his people.

29. John Calvin

The Eucharistic prayer that I have been assigned is John Calvin.  It can be found on pages 213-218.  The pray itself begins on 215.

Calvin, in producing his own French service book followed closely the rite of Martin Bucer.  Calvin like Zwingli and Luther was not fond of the medieval Roman mass.  He believed that it involved "magical numblings."  Calvin sought to return the Eucharist to what he believed was its primitive simplicity; Word and Sacrament holding their rightful place.  Calvin like Bucer developed what Japer calls a "mediating position on the presence of Christ."  Calvin believed that the body of Christ was in heaven and could not be "imprisoned" in earthly matter.  However, he believed that the sacrament was a divine act and a means of grace.  Calvin did not include intercessions in his eucharistic prayer.  Intercession was a separate prayer, following the sermon.  

1. What is unique about this prayer is that the Institution narrative is taken directly from 1 Corinthians 11.  The institution narrative does not form a part of the eucharistic prayer.

2. Calvin's eucharistic prayer is not addressed to God.  Instead, it is an exhortation addressed to the congregation.  In addition, Calvin's eucharistic prayer contains little of the elements of praise and thanksgiving or remembering of our Lord's saving work.  It stressed, heavily, worthy participation and holiness of life.  

3. The individual who is speaking in Calvin's eucharistic prayer is the presider; the minister.  The prayer asserts that the speaker acts in the name and authority of Jesus: "Therefore, in accordance with this rule, in the name and by the authority of our Lord Jesus Christ, I excommunicate all idolaters, blasphemers, despiers of God, heretics, and all who form private sets to break the unity of the Church, all perjures, all who rebel against parents or superiors, all who are seditious, mutinous, quarrelsome or brutal, all adulters, fornicators, thieves, ravishes, misers, drunkards, gluttons, and all who lead a scandalous and dissolute life."  

4. Calvin's eucharistic prayer does not fit the "model" eucharistic prayer: There is no preface, naming of God, anamnesis, sanctus, epiclesis, anamnesis of the Paschal Victory, and no intercessions.  

5. What is remembered?  Nothing, except for the institution narrative taken from 1 Corinthians 11.

6. There is no epiclesis.

7. The change in the elements is named explicitly in the Institution narrative.  "This is my body" and "this cup is the new covenant in my blood."

8. The prayer says nothing about the sacrifice of Christ except that it is imputed to us for righteousness.  "Moreover, let us receive this sacrament as a pledge that the virtue of his death and Passion is imputed to us for righteousness, just as if we have suffered it in our own persons."

The intercessions are separate from the eucharistic prayer.  It is a separate prayer that follows the sermon.

30. Hermann von Wied

31. The Order of the Communion

The first two steps taken to revise the Latin Mass in England were to read the Epistles and Gospel in the vernacular and to offer communion to the laity under both species.  "The Order of Communion" gives the instructions as to how the receiving of communion should take place.  A set of penitential devotions in the vernacular was inserted into the Latin Mass following the receiving of communion by the priest.  Before the priest is to take communion, the rubrics reminds him that he is not to drink all the wine.  In fact, he is to only take "one sup or draught."  After the priest received communion, there were two exhortations.  One was to be read on the previous Sunday, and the other right before communion.  These exhortations were to encourage those present to examine their sins.  The first examination was a private confession, while the second was more general.  These confessions were read by the priest, or other minister, or another communicant.  Absolution was then given.  The Prayer of Humble Access was said aloud by the priest.  When giving communion, the words chosen spoke of the bread preserving the body and the wine preserving the soul.  At the very end, there was a rubric that reminded the priest that he could break the host into two or more pieces, because the whole body of Christ was present in each wafer.  There is also a provision for consecrating more wine should the chalice be emptied before everyone has the opportunity to receive from it.

The Order of Communion---228-231

228a  First Exhortation:
The priest is tell his parishioners at some point during the week to prepare themselves to receive communion.

228b  Rubric:
Communion is after the priest.  Both species are to be offered.  The priest is to only take one sip.

228d Second Exhortation:
Priest lists sins that would prevent one from receiving communion.  This is the personal confession.  If anyone walks out, the priest is to take note so that he (229a)may "commune with him privily at convenient leisure, and see if he can with good exhortation bring him to grace".

229c  General Confession:
Priest makes a general confession to almighty God on behalf of the people.

229d General Absolution:
The Lord has given the power to absolve sins to the Church.  May he forgive you, strengthen you and bring you to everlasting life.

230a Words of Christ:
A statement of confirmation of faith.  That is, Jesus is the source of strength and to believe in him means everlasting life.

230b Words of Paul:
Jesus came to save sinners.

230b Words of John:
Jesus is the advocate of the sinner before God.

230c The Prayer of Humble Access:
This prayers is said aloud by the priest while he kneels.  In this prayer the priest acknowledges the unworthiness of all those to receive communion, but asks that all those who do receive communion that  it may make them strong and grow in holiness.

230c Communion:
The priest will offer communion while those who receive remain kneeling.  If there is another minister, he is to follow the priest with the chalice so that all may receive under both species.

230d Words of Administering:
When passing out the bread the priest is to say, "The body of our Lord Jesus Christ, which was given for thee, preserve thy body unto everlasting life."   (231a) When passing out the cup, the following is to be said, "The blood of our Lord Jesus Christ, which was shed for thee, preserve thy soul unto everlasting life."

231b Final Blessing:

231c Rubric:
If the host is broken, one should not think less, because in each of them is the whole body of Christ.  If the wine should run out, the priest may consecrate more wine without any elevation or lifting up.

32. BCP 1549

The 1549 Book of Common Prayer was produced under the authority of King Edward of England by Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury.  It was a transitional and a compromise document, replaced by 1552, and generally criticized by all parties.  In many ways, it was conservative in its theology, retaining much of the wording of the Roman rite, and including prayers for the dead and the invocation of the saints.  There were changes, however, which are especially apparent in the removal of any sacrificial notion of the Mass apart from the sacrifice of praise and thanksgiving offered by the people.  

Like our own prayers, it is God the Father who is addressed in this prayer.  The use of names is limited, pretty much restricted to Almighty and ever living God, Lord and Father.  

The prayer varies a good deal from our "model" Eucharistic Prayer.  Most striking is the almost complete lack of any anamnesis.  There are five proper prefaces for feast days, but otherwise, the prayer proceeds directly from the naming to the Pre-Sanctus, without any preface anamnesis at all.  There is no Vere Sanctus, and the petitions follow immediately upon the Sanctus itself.  There is a split Epiclesis, followed by the Institution Narrative, Anamnesis of the Pascal Victory, the offertory, the second half of the Epiclesis and the Doxology.

The change prayed for in the epiclesis is somewhat vague, stating that the "creatures of bread and wine...may be unto us the body and blood of thy most dearly beloved Son Jesus Christ.  The second half of the epiclesis goes on to pray that those who receive this body and blood may be made into "one body with thy Son Jesu Christ," and may receive grace and blessing.

Perhaps the most significant difference that can be seen in the underlying theology of the prayer is the removal of any notion of the Mass itself being a sacrifice.  Rather, it is the praise and thanksgiving of the assembly, as well as the offering of their lives in service that constitutes the only elements of sacrifice within the liturgy.  The sacrifice of Christ is remembered within the prayer, but its past occurrence is emphasized and removed from the present celebration.

Though lengthy, the intercessions are not all that notable.  They do include an extended petition for the king, and unlike other reformed rites, contained an invocation of the saints and prayers for the dead.  

This prayer as well as the rest of the liturgy has a strong penitential tone, but seems to me to be otherwise unremarkable.  The lack of anamnesis makes the prayer read like a litany of requests, lacking in many ways both simplicity and beauty.  I agree with the people of the time in finding this prayer rather unsatisfying.  Perhaps the compromising character of the prayer has robbed it of its ability to express the deeper reality that lies behind it.

33. BCP 1552

The 1552 version of the Book of Common Prayer was the immediate replacement of the one published just three years earlier.  While the 1549 version could be seen as a compromise document, this prayer represents a nearly wholesale acceptance by Cranmer of the theology of Bucer and Zwingli.  In fact, many of the elements of the prayer have been removed completely or placed at other parts of the liturgy.  The result is a short prayer that consists primarily in an institution narrative with a lengthy introduction.

Even more that the prayer of 1549, this version bears little resemblance to our "model" Eucharistic Prayer.  It contains absolutely no anamnesis apart from the five feast day prefaces, lacks the "Blessed is he..." of the Sanctus, has no Vere Sanctus, no epiclesis, no memorial acclamation, no anamnesis of the Pascal Victory, no intercessions, invocation of the saints, and if one limits the prayer to before communion, it lacks any sort of offertory, doxology and amen.  The prayer begins with the opening dialogue and the naming, followed immediately by the pre-Sanctus.  Following the Sanctus itself, a prayer of humble access is offered, which is essentially a penitential, preparatory prayer before receiving communion.  This is followed by an introduction to the institution narrative and the narrative itself.  This is followed immediately, without any ceremony or instruction, by the distribution of communion.  If one allows that Cranmer intended the sharing of communion in the middle of the prayer, then that sharing is followed by the Lord's Prayer, an offertory and the doxology.

There is no anamnesis in this prayer, and the closest thing to an epiclesis is that the communicants receive communion with a good disposition.  There is no change in the elements.  In fact, the prayer goes out of its way to emphasis that the people receive the "creatures of bread and wine."  In delivering the bread and wine to the people, any notion of the elements as the body and blood of Christ are removed, and replaced with the command to be thankful for Christ's death.  In fact, the rubrics instructed the presided to take the left over elements for his own personal use.

The offertory prayer after communion speaks of sacrifice only in terms of the peoples praise and thanksgiving and the gift of their very selves.  All other references to sacrifice within the liturgy have been removed, while the mention of the sacrifice on the cross remains.  As was mentioned earlier, all the intercessions of the 1549 prayer have been moved to another part of the liturgy, and no intercessions remain within the prayer itself.

Even more so that the former prayer of 1549, I find this particular prayer to be unsatisfying.  Though short, the prayer manages to be wordy without any real beauty.  It is so stripped down that there is little of substance left.  The effort to reject medieval notions of sacrifice and substantial change leaves one feeling that in fact here the Eucharist is "just a symbol" with no deeper meaning or reality behind it.

34. John Knox

35. Scottish BCP 1637

The motivation behind this prayer was the Scottish Bishops desire to have a service book very similar to that of England but with some Scottish characteristics.  One characteristic described by the commentator was that this rite was to avoid anything that would appear to be Roman Catholic such as having the presbyter elevate the hosts.  Other interesting facts about this prayer is that it was written in the vernacular language of English and that it was never promulgated due to widespread opposition.  

1. This prayer was to be more distinctly Scottish, although due to my ignorance on the two cultures back then, I am not aware of exactly how it is more Scottish.
2. God the Father is addressed in this prayer, usually with the term Almighty God as well as Lord and holy Father.
3. The speaker is primarily the presbyter, speaking on behalf of the congregation.  
4. This Eucharistic prayer seems to follow our model reasonably closely.  It begins with dialogue, has a pre-Sanctus prior to the preface, utilizes a preface that remembers, has a Sanctus although it lacks a very Sanctus, it then moves to anamnesis, a unified epiclesis, anamnesis with the institution narrative, then there is offertory, and intercessions.
5. The last supper is primarily remembered.  The various prefaces remember different events from Jesus' birth to Pentecost.
6. The epiclesis is not split.  The change of the elements is named this way, "Vouchsafe so to bless and sanctify with thy word and Holy Spirit these thy gifts and creatures of bread and wine, that they may be unto us the body and blood of thy most dearly beloved Son; so that we, receiving them according to thy Son our Saviour Jesus Christ's holy institution, in remembrance of his death and passion, may be partakers of the same his most precious body and blood". (pp 262).  
7. Christ has already made the sacrifice but the people make a sacrifice of praise and thanksgiving as well as their body and souls.
8. The intercessions focus on those who will be receiving communion.  There is no mention of church leadership, saints, or the dead.  
9. I don't really see any real significance of this prayer for contemporary pastoral practice, seeing as how it was never implemented

36. A Directory of 1645

37. Richard Baxter 1661

The reformation of the Liturgy 1661
In 1660 he played a prominent part in the restoration of Charles II, but declined the offer of the bishop of Hereford due to his views on episcopacy. The refusal debarred him from ecclesiastical office and he was not allowed to return to Kidderminster. Between 1662 and 1668 he suffered persecution at the hands of Judge Jeffreys. He was in sympathy with the removal of James II and welcomed William and Mary. He died on the 8th December 1691.

"His eucharistic rite was intended to be used at the conclusion of the normal Sunday service, which Sunday service, which had its full quota of psalmody, Old and New Testament readings, prayers, and sermon."  

To the three different person of the Trinity.
Father (273 d) Son (274c) Spirit (275 a)  

Ministry and people all pages.

Naming (273d)
No Preface
No Sanctus  
No Post - Sanctus
Anamnesis --Holy Thursday (274 b)
Epiclesis (274 c)
No Paschal Victory

Last Super when he addressed the three person of the Trinity.

It is a New Covenant  (273 d)  
It is to give us pardon of our sins (274 c)

Yes prayer for the Church (273 b)  

This prayer is a Trinitarian Prayer. Make a good balance between Father, Son and Holy Spirit.

38. BCP 1662

The first big liturgical reform by Arbp. Cranmer (Book of Common Prayer 1549) was not well received; it retained too much of the old traditional Eucharistic theology.  It was cut and changed, becoming more Protestant in The Book of 1552. The third step, Book of Common Prayer 1662,  represents a compromise theological position between those who wanted to restore the pre-Reformation liturgy, and the reforming Presbyterians. It does  not follow the "model" eucharistic prayer, although it retains some of the elements.  As a prayer of the Protestant Churches, it follows the "Order for the Administration of the Lord's Supper or Holy Communion" as found in the previous Books of Common Prayer. This 1662 version includes some 600 changes, most of them minor.  The words were substantially  unchanged, but the manner of celebrating the rite does change.    

1. The title Offertory reappears (279c)
2. Direction to lay both alms and bread upon the Lord's Table is added, but nothing is "offered up" (277d)
3. There is a Dialogue, Preface and Sanctus (279d and 280a)  
4. Naming: O Lord, holy Father, almighty, everlasting God. (279d)
5. Eucharistic Prayer is called The Prayer of Consecration (280d) with no mention of Holy Spirit anywhere
6. A short remembering of the suffering and death precedes the consecration (280d) but there is no mention of resurrection or ascension anywhere.  
7. A scriptural institution narrative contains the words of consecration (281a)
8. Fraction takes place at the institution Narrative (281a); bread is broken before the words "This is my Body" (281a)  
9. Includes Rubrics to lay hands on all the bread and on every vessel (281d)
10. AMEN inserted at the end of consecration (281b)
11. Ministers and people eat and drink immediately, within the prayer itself.(281b)  
12. The rubrics recognize "Bishops, Priests, and deacons" as well as "minister" (281b)
13. Declaration on Kneeling was restored so people receive communion kneeling (281c)
14. People receive Communion in the hand (281c)
15.  When the minister delivers to the recipient, his words point to a belief in the change: "The Body of Lord Jesus Christ...(281b)   The Blood of our Lord Jesus Christ..."   (281c)
16. Borrowing from Scottish rite, if additional supplies are required, there is provision to loop back to the Institution Narrative and consecrate again. (281d)  
17. New provision for consecrated remains after communion (282a) Must be covered immediately and later consumed, not taken out of the church, not for the personal use of the priest.
18. After communion, a Prayer of Oblation: "We offer ourselves, our souls, our bodies, to be a living sacrifice to thee" (see 249b)

This version of theological compromise lasted for 300 years, and is still one of the official rites of the Church of England.  In addition to Anglicans, many Methodists have found it acceptable throughout the centuries. The pastoral significance may well be in the area of Church Unity. Roman Catholics and Anglicans have been in dialogue about our common sacramental beliefs. The Anglican Church that broke from Rome and reformed the liturgy has been re-examining Eucharistic prayer and belief with us. We realize that for Church Unity, we may pray different prayers, but we must believe the same.   And our prayer reflects our belief.

39. Neuchatel 1713 -- Br. Anton Rusnak
This is a homemade liturgy. John Frederic Osterwald,  Swiss Reformed pastor, composed his own eucharistic prayer in 1713, combining parts of Calvin's rite, the Book of Common Prayer, and the Roman Missal.  The fact that he borrowed heavily also means that the theology will be mixed.  It is a very interesting cut-and-paste, but it certainly does  not follow the "model" eucharistic prayer.  

1. There is no Ministry of the Word at all, although while people are going to communion, psalms are sung and select passages of Scripture are read. (288c)
2. Opens from the pulpit with a Trinitarian Invocation and a Prayer for Grace. (285b)
3. Borrowing from Calvin, the Scriptural Warrant from 1 Cor 11 was read, leading to an exhortation. (258c thru 286b)  
4. Exhortation ends with an offertory to the Father and Holy Spirit. What is offered is the people,  offering themselves: It is "necessary for you to offer humble and thankful hearts," (286c) and "let us offer today our praises and thanksgivings" (286d)  
5. Dialogue is replaced by Calvin's type of Sursum Corda (286d) followed by Anglican-type Preface and Sanctus (288a)  
6. Naming: Lord God, Holy Father, God eternal.  
7. Proper Prefaces from the Anglican and Roman books (287) and one for September written by Osterwald himself. (287d)  Why September?  Perhaps to fill the long gap in Proper Prefaces between Pentecost and Christmas.  
8. Of two Pentecost prefaces, one seems political, speaking of "gift of speaking divers languages," and "being brought out of darkness into light, from error to the truth." (287c)  
9. Intercessions, Confession and absolution relied on Anglican form (288a)
10. Minister finally goes from the pulpit to the table for a brief institution narrative (288b)
11. No remembering.  
12. Prayer of consecration, which broke new ground in the Reformed Churches. (288b)  
13. Reference to sacrifice of Christ seems to divorce it from commemoration of his death (288b)  
14. Interesting sequence: Minister consecrates bread, eats, consecrates wine, drinks. (288d)  
15. When the minister delivers to the recipient, his words do not indicate belief in a change; he doesn't refer to Body and Blood, but says "Remember what Christ has done and be thankful" (288d)  

This liturgy was a landmark for the Reformed Churches, and remained in use until the 20th century. It is considered the first ecumenical liturgy. It was used by the Huguenot congregation in Charleston, SC, starting in the 1850's, and from there went to Scotland.  The significance for contemporary pastoral practice is a chance to see what a "communion service" divorced from the Liturgy of the Word looks like.   Also,  the long scriptural warrant/exhortation (285c thru 286) seems harsh, like damnation and hellfire preaching. In Catholic terms,  it sounds like Jansenism leading one to scrupulosity

40. Nonjurors' Liturgy 1718

Anglican liturgy.

Nonjours were those who refuse to take oath of allegiance to King William and Queen Mary in 1689 and in consequences were deprived of their living or offices in the Church of England.

1716 - Priest petitioned a greater degree of uniformity in their forms of worship, and inclusion of four elements in the eucharist:  the mixed chalice, prayer for the departed, prayer of oblation and an epiclesis.

Based in the rite of St. Basil (offertory), St. James (sanctus, and thanksgiving for creation and redemption) , and Clementine liturgy (anamnesis-oblation-epiclesis, intercessions; Scottish rite (Gloria)

Familiar language.

Primitive structure.

It has a good balance between Father and Son and Holy Spirit  (294a).

Dialogue between priest and people with God.

Naming 292d.
Preface  293c.
Sanctus 293d.
Post Sanctus 294a.
Memory -Creation, Incarnation, Good Friday, Holy Thursday 294 a.b.c.
Offertory 295 a.
Epiclesis 295b.
Prayers 295d.

NO Paschal Victory   (Idea of sacrifice 295b).

Passion and Suffering of Christ. 295c. 297a.

Yes 295d and 296 a.b.c.

This prayer sustains the idea of Sacrifice as in the Middle

41. Henry Muhlenberg 1748 --
This is a Lutheran Rite that drew from the Church Orders of Northern Germany.  A few
decades before the Revolutionary War, Henry Muhlenberg, a native German, produced
this rite for congregations in Pennsylvania.  The Eucharistic Prayer comes from Martin
Luther's Deutsche Messe of 1526 (see pages 196 and 197 for that).  The dialogue on the
middle of p. 300 is similar to what we are used to.  There is no preface.  The speaker is
the presider and the prayer is addressed to God.  Most of the prayer is an expanded
version of the Our Father.  Thus, the intercessions are found here.  There is no epiclesis.  
The institution narrative is intact, and the elements are called the body and blood of Jesus
(see top of p. 301).  When distributing communion the bread is called "the true body of your Lord Jesus Christ", and the wine is called "the true blood of your Lord Jesus Christ."  This prayer does not follow the form of the Eucharistic Prayer that we learned in class.  There is an institution narrative and some intercessions.  It is not so much a Eucharistic Prayer, but a paraphrase of the Our Father and an exhortation.

42. Scottish Common Office 1764 --
The Scottish Communion prayer is on page 303 and is based on Episcopalian and Presbyterian public worship.   The prayer is addressed to the Father. Angels and Archangels come in the beginning after proper preface. Words of institution come right after remembrance of Angels. After that fallow Oblation  and Invocation.  The offertory contains words "offer up" the bread and wine, the text of the prayer for church and the text of the epiclesis. The prayer for the church comes between eucharistic prayer and communion. The act of oblation and the epiclesis followed the Institution narrative.  

43. Protestant Episcopal 1790 --

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To Think About

1. In what way is the Mass a sacrifice?

2. At Mass, who offers what to whom?

3. In what way does the Mass "repeat" the sacrifice of Calvary?

4. Explain the reformers preference for the term "The Lord's Supper" over "The Sacrifice of the Mass."

5. Explain what was at issue in the faith-works controversy at the time of the reformation.  

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Copyright: Tom Richstatter.  All Rights Reserved.  This page was created by Fr. Thomas Richstatter, O.F.M.  Every effort has been, and is being made to acknowledge sources when the ideas are not my own.  Any failure to comply with the United States Copyright Act (Title 17, United States Code) will be corrected immediately should I become aware of it.  This site was updated on 02/20/15.  Your comments on this site are welcome at