Eucharist
Part 2 History

Chapter e29 Vatican II [1960-1975]

Preliminary Questions

Bibliography

Summary

Dates

Constitution on the Liturgy: Chapter Two

General Instruction on the Roman Missal

To Think About

Note:  This chapter is concerned specifically with the Eucharist.  Before studying this chapter, study (or review) the chapter on the Second Vatican Council in general   Chapter d 27.

Preliminary Questions

 

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Bibliography

The Catholic News Service provides a comparison between the Missal of 1962 and the Missal of Paul VI at  http://www.catholicnews.com/data/stories/cns/0703698.htm

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Summary

    Vatican II [1960-1975] Active Participation.  Vernacular.  Scripture.  Two part structure:  Liturgy of the Word and Liturgy of the Eucharist. Symbol. Standing for prayer. General Intercessions. Procession with gifts restored. Kiss of peace. All communicate.  Communion from the Cup restored.  Simpler ceremony. Liturgy shapes "Church".  "Lex orandi" axiom rediscovered.  

50. Restore structure and elements
51. Restore
Lectionary
52. Restore homily
53. Restore General Intercessions
54. Restore the language of the people
55. Restore the "Meal" dimension of the Eucharist by: 
        a.  Restore Communion from bread of this Mass (not from tabernacle) and 
        b.  Restore the cup to the laity (eat and drink)
56. Restore Story-telling as and essential element
57. Restore Concelebration (rather than many, simultaneous, quasi-private Masses)

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Dates

 

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Constitution on the Liturgy: Chapter Two

CHAPTER II. THE MOST SACRED MYSTERY OF THE EUCHARIST

(Note: Discursive section 47-48; dispositive section 49-58.)

47. At the Last Supper, on the night when he was betrayed, our Savior instituted the eucharistic sacrifice of his body and blood.  He did this in order to perpetuate the sacrifice of the cross throughout the centuries until he should come again and in this way to entrust to his beloved Bride, the Church, a memorial of his death and resurrection: a sacrament of love, a sign of unity, a bond of charity, (See Augustine, In loannis Euangelium Tractatus 36, cap. 6, n. 13: PL 35: 1613.) a paschal banquet "in which Christ is eaten, the heart is filled with grace, and a pledge of future glory given to US." (BrevRom, antiphon for the Magnificat, second vespers, Feast of Corpus Christi [LH, antiphon for Canticle of Mary, evening prayer II, Feast of Corpus Christi])

TRR Commentary:  Notice the mention of Holy Thursday, Good Friday, and Easter Sunday.  Compare with:   "The Mass is the sacrifice of the New Law in which Christ through the ministry of the priest, offers Himself to God in an unbloody manner under the appearances of bread and wine."  Question 357, Baltimore Catechism.

48. The Church, therefore, earnestly desires that Christ's faithful, when present at this mystery of faith, should not be there as strangers or silent spectators; on the contrary, through a good understanding of the rites and prayers they should take part in the sacred service conscious of what they are doing, with devotion and full involvement. They should be instructed by God's word and be nourished at the table of the Lord's body; they should give thanks to God; by offering the immaculate Victim, not only through the hands of the priest, but also with him, they should learn to offer themselves as well; through Christ the Mediator, (See Cyril of Alexandria, Commentarium in loannis Evangehunt lib. 11, cap. 11-12: PC; 74, 557-565, esp. 564-565,) they should be formed day by day into an ever more perfect unity with God and with each other, so that finally God may be all in all.

TRR Commentary:  What follows is the dispositive section of the law.

49. Thus, mindful of those Masses celebrated with the assistance of the faithful, especially on Sundays and holydays of obligation, the Council makes the following decrees in order that the sacrifice of the Mass, even in its ritual forms, may become pastorally effective to the utmost degree.

50. The Order of Mass is to be revised in a way that will bring out more clearly the intrinsic nature and purpose of its several parts, as also the connection between them, and will more readily achieve the devout, active participation of the faithful.  For this purpose the rites are to be simplified, due care being taken to preserve their substance; elements that, with the passage of time, came to be duplicated or were added with but little advantage are now to be discarded; other elements that have suffered injury through accident of history are now, as may seem useful or necessary, to be restored to the vigor they had in the tradition of the Fathers.

51. The treasures of the Bible are to be opened up more lavishly, so that a richer share in God's word may be provided for the faithful. In this way a more representative portion of holy Scripture will be read to the people in the course of a prescribed number of years.

52. By means of the homily the mysteries of the faith and the guiding principles of the Christian life are expounded from the sacred text during the course of the liturgical year; as part of the liturgy itself therefore, the homily is strongly recommended; in fact, at Masses celebrated with the assistance of the people on Sundays and holydays of obligation it is not to be omitted except for a serious reason.

53. Especially on Sundays and holydays of obligation there is to be restored, after the gospel and the homily, "the universal prayer" or "the prayer of the faithful." this prayer, in which the people are to take part, intercession shall be made for holy Church, for the civil authorities, for those oppressed by various needs, for all people, and for the salvation of the entire world. (See I Trn 2:1-2.)

54. With art. 36 of this Constitution as the norm, in Masses celebrated with the people a suitable place may be allotted to their mother tongue. This is to apply in the first place to the readings and "the universal prayer," but also, as local conditions may warrant, to those parts belonging to the people.

Nevertheless steps should be taken enabling the faithful to say or to sing together in Latin those parts of the Ordinary of the Mass belonging to them.

Wherever a more extended use of the mother tongue within the Mass appears desirable, the regulation laid down in art. 40 of this Constitution is to be observed.

55. That more complete form of participation in the Mass by which the faithful, after the priest's communion, receive the Lord's body from the same sacrifice, is strongly endorsed.

The dogmatic principles laid down by the Council of Trent remain intact. (Council of Trent, sress. 21, Doctr. De Communione sub utraqsie specie et parvulorum cap. 1- 3, can. 1-3: CT 8, 698-699.)

In instances to be specified by the Apostolic See, however, communion under both kinds may be granted both to clerics and religious and to the laity at the discretion of the bishops, for example, to the ordained at the Mass of their ordination, to the professed at the Mass of their religious profession, to the newly baptized at the Mass following their baptism.

56. The two parts that, in a certain sense, go to make up the Mass, namely, the liturgy of the word and the liturgy of the eucharist, are so closely connected with each other that they form but one single act of worship. Accordingly this Council strongly urges pastors that in their catechesis they insistently teach the faithful to take part in the entire Mass, especially on Sundays and holydays of obligation.

57. 1. Concelebration, which aptly expresses the unity of the priesthood, has continued to this day as a practice in the Church of both East and West. For this reason it has seemed good to the Council to extend permission for concelebration to the following cases:

1.    a. on Holy Thursday, both the chrism Mass and the evening Mass;
        b. Masses during councils, bishops' conferences, and synods;
        c. the Mass at the blessing of an abbot.

2.  Also, with permission of the Ordinary, who is the one to decide whether concelebration is opportune, to: 
    a. the conventual Mass and the principal Mass in churches, when the needs of the faithful do not require that all 
    the priests on hand celebrate individually;
    b. Masses celebrated at any kind of meeting of priests, whether secular or religious.

2. 1. The regulation, however, of the discipline of concelebration in the diocese pertains to the bishop.

2. This, however, does not take away the option of every priest to celebrate Mass individually, not, however, at the same time and in the same church as a concelebrated Mass or on Holy Thursday.

58. A new rite for concelebration is to be drawn up and inserted into the Roman Pontifical and Roman Missal.

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General Instruction on the Roman Missal

24. The parts preceding the liturgy of the word, namely, the entrance song, greeting, penitential rite, Kyrie, Gloria, and opening prayer or collect, have the character of a beginning, introduction, and preparation.

The purpose of these rites is that the faithful coming together take on the form of a community and prepare themselves to listen to God's word and celebrate the eucharist properly.

58. All in the assembly gathered for Mass have an individual right and duty to contribute their participation in ways differing according to the diversity of their order and liturgical function. Thus in carrying out this function, all, whether ministers or lay persons, should do all and only those parts that belong to them, so that the very arrangement of the celebration itself makes the Church stand out as being formed in a structure of different orders and ministries.

240. The sign of communion is more complete when given under both kinds, since in that form the sign of the eucharistic meal appears more clearly. The intention of Christ that the new and eternal covenant be ratified in his blood is better expressed, as is the relation of the eucharistic banquet to the heavenly banquet.9

241. Priests should use the occasion to teach the faithful the Catholic doctrine on the form of communion, as affirmed by the Council of Trent. They should first be reminded that, according to Catholic faith, they receive the whole Christ and the genuine sacrament when they participate in the sacrament even under one kind and that they are not thus deprived of any grace necessary for salvation.10

They should also be taught that the Church may change the manner of celebrating and receiving the sacraments, provided their substance is safeguarded. In doing so, the church judges when such changes will better meet the devotion or needs of different times and places.11 At the same time the faithful should be urged to take part in the rite which brings out the sign of the eucharistic meal more fully.

281. Following the example of Christ, the Church has always used bread and wine with water to celebrate the Lord's Supper.

282. According to the tradition of the Church, the bread must be made from wheat; according to the tradition of the Latin Church, it must be unleavened.

283. The nature of the sign demands that the material for the eucharistic celebration appear as actual food. The eucharistic bread, even though unleavened and traditional in form, should therefore be made in such a way that the priest can break it and distribute the parts to at least some of the faithful. When the number of communicants is large or other pastoral needs require it, small hosts may be used. The gesture of breaking of the bread, as the eucharist was called in apostolic times, will more clearly show the eucharist as a sign of unity and charity, since the one bread is being distributed among the members of one family.

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To Think About

 

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Copyright: Tom Richstatter.  All Rights Reserved.  This page was created by Fr. Thomas Richstatter, O.F.M.  Every effort has been, and is being made to acknowledge sources when the ideas are not my own.  Any failure to comply with the United States Copyright Act (Title 17, United States Code) will be corrected immediately should I become aware of it.  This site was updated on 03/20/15.  Your comments on this site are welcome at trichstatter@franciscan.org