Sacraments of Initiation
Part 4 Initiation of Infants

Chapter i47 First Eucharist for Catholics Baptized in Infancy

Preliminary Questions

Bibliography

History

Eucharist and the Initiation Process

The Sequence of the Sacraments of Initiation

The Age of Confirmation

History:  Legislation and Guidelines

The Directory for Masses with Children

Some Helps for Liturgy with Children

Developmental Stages

 

First Eucharist

Infant Communion

Excommunication

Children's Liturgy of the Word

To Think About

Preliminary Questions

Why is it that children can be baptized without personal faith but we delay communion until the age of digression?  Why is it that only the Roman rite observes this custom?  Do you think it is a good custom, or should children be given Holy Communion?

When did you first share the Eucharistic with the Christian community? Was it the "completion" of you initiation rites?

At what age did you make your First Holy Communion? At what age should children today be fully initiated? In your experience, was "first confession" a part of your Christian Initiation? Did you first celebrate the sacrament of reconciliation before or after being admitted to table fellowship?

What are the life events that eucharist celebrates in the life of a child? In the life of an adolescent? What do the developmental theories of Piaget and Kohlberg say about the way Eucharist should be celebrated with children?

What is the catechetical thrust of contemporary First Communion programs.

What are the theological requirements for receiving Eucharist? Are the requirements different for Confirmation? Why or why not?

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Bibliography

David Holeton, Infant Communion Then And Now Grove Liturgical Study No. 27, Grove Books Bramcote Notts. 1981

Nathan D. Mitchell. Forum Essays: Eucharist as Sacrament of Initiation, #2. Chicago: Liturgy Training Publications, 1994.

Sacred Congregation for Divine Worship. Directory for Masses with Children, Pueros baptizatos, 1973. TLD pp 197-216.

Code of Canon Law. Canons 914, 988, and 989. See also the commentary on Canon 194 by John M. Huels OSM in CLSA Commentary, p 653. 1983

Children in the Assembly of the Church. From 20 annual conference of the Notre Dame Center for Pastoral Liturgy. Chicago, IL: Liturgy Training Publications.

Directory For Masses with Children. Washington D.C.: United States Catholic Conference, 1974.

Lectionary: American Bible Society, Contemporary English Version

Apostolos-Cappadona, Diane. The Sacred Play of Children. New York: The Seabury Press., 1993.

Huck, Gabe. Leaders Manual. Chicago: GIA Publication Inc, 1989.

John M. Huels. "First Penance," Disputed Questions in the Liturgy Today. Chicago: Liturgy Training Publications, 1988, pp 67-74. ISBN 0-930467-95-7.

Kenny-Sheputes, Christine. Take Me Home, notes on The Church Year for Children. Liturgy Training Publications, Chicago, 1991. [Reproducible pages about Church Year for Children - Seasons - Feast Days - Holidays, Introduction about the seasons and suggestions of things to do - art which could be colored.]

Code of Canon Law cc 912-914, 988-989. Commentary pp 651-653, 695-696.

Infant communion (See: Paul F. Bradshaw, A Bibliography of Recent Studies, The Alcuin Club, 1989, pp 22-23.)

Allison, C. Fitzsimmons. "Anglican Initiatory Rites: A contribution to the Current Debate", Anglican and Episcopal History 56 (1987) 27-43.

Buchanan, Colin O. (ed.). Nurturing Children in Communion. GLS 44, 1985.

Holeton, David R. "Communion of All the Baptized and Anglican Tradition," ATR 69 (1987) 13-23.

Holeton, David R. "The Communion of Infants and Hussitism," Communio Viatorum 27 (1984) 207-224.

Holenton, David R. "Baptized Children, Confirmation, and Holy Communion" SJT 33 (1980) 551-565.

Meyers, Ruth A. "Infant Communion: Reflections on the Case from Tradition," Anglican and Episcopal History 57 (1988) 159-175.

Muller-Fahrenlolz, Geiko (ed.). ...and do not hinder them: An ecumenical plea for the admission of children to the eucharist. Geneva 1982: World Council of Churches Faith and Order Paper 109.

Pfleiderer, David. "Children and the Lord's Supper", Reformed Liturgy and Music 15 (1981) 5-214.

Pritchard, Norman. "Profession of Faith and admission to communion in the light of 1 Cor. 11 and other passages", SJT 33 (1980) 55-70.

Searl, Mark. "Infant Baptism Reconsidered," Alternative Futures for Worship, Volume 2, Baptism and Confirmation. Liturgical Press: Collegeville, 1987, pp 15-54.

Stevenson, Kenneth W. "A Theological Reflection on the Experience of Inclusion/Exclusion at the Eucharist," ATR 68 (1986) 212-221.

Taft, Robert F. "On the Question of Infant Communion in the Byzantine Catholic Churches of the U.S.A.," Diakonia 17 (1982) 201-214.

Watkins, Keith. "Children in Worship: a problem for the Christian Church Disciples of Christ," Encounter 44 (1983) 263-276.

Weil, Louis. "Disputed Aspects of Infant Communion," SL 17 (1987) 256-263.

Celebration of the sacraments with persons with disabilities

National Conference of Catholic Bishops. "Guidelines for the Celebration of the Sacraments with Persons with Disabilities." Washington D.C.: United States Catholic Conference 1995. Publication no. 5-027. ISBN 1-57455-027-6.

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Eucharist and the Initiation Process

That "Eucharist is the culmination of the initiation process" has been the consistent teaching of all Church writers until the dissolution of the rite in the West. 

"Fresh from the waters and resplendent in these garments, God's holy people hasten to the altar of Christ, saying: I will go in to the altar of God, to God who gives joy to my youth. They have sloughed off the old skin of error, their youth renewed like an eagle's, and they make haste to approach that heavenly banquet." (Saint Ambrose, from the treatise "On the Mysteries," Liturgy of the Hours, Reading for the Fifteenth Week in Ordinary Time, Friday.)

Any celebration (adults, infants, Easter, Mothers' Day, etc.) of the rites of initiation must make it clear that Eucharist is the culmination and completion of the initiation process.

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History

1. Apostolic [0-399]  Everyone baptized had the right to receive Holy Communion.  When infants were baptized they received the Eucharist under the form of wine.  Sometimes when infants received the bread they spit it up and in order to avoid any irreverence infants began only to receive under the form of wine.  Often the minister would dip his or her finger into the chalice and place it on the infants tongue.  When infants were old enough to eat and drink they were given both the bread and the wine.
2. Patristic [400-799] 


 
3. Early Medieval [800-1199] With the development of public penance which could be received only once and general misunderstanding about worthiness for holy communion and mass as meal or sacrifice, adults to begin to be refused or abstained from holy communion.

 
4. Medieval [1200-1299] Communion from the cup disappears in the Roman rite which leaves the anomaly of only children receiving the wine and the adults, when they do receive only receiving the bread.

 
5. Late Medieval [1300-1499] Few receive holy communion with either bread or wine either adults or children and infants.  Only the presiding priest receives the host and drinks from the cup.  So few people are receiving communion that a law is made that Christians must receive at least once a year at the Easter time. 
 
6. Reformation [1500-1699]  Reformers stress the Holy Thursday/Lord's Supper dimension on the Eucharist.  Protestant churches of the reform continue the catholic  practice of offering communion only four times a year.

 
7. After Trent [1700-1899] 

 
8. Before Vatican II [1900-1959] Pius X lowers the age for first communion.  Mass is still same principally as principally (and exclusively) as sacrifice.  Few people receive the bread at most masses.

 
9. Vatican II [1960-1975] Restoration of the meal dimension of the Eucharist and emphasis that full participation in the Eucharist involve eating and drinking. 

 
10. After Vatican II [1975-2050]  While many older Catholics still retain the primary image of Eucharist as benediction in their subconscious, an image which requires neither eating nor drinking, children who do not have any unconscious history, experience the mass as meal even from infancy and consequently they desire to share in the eating and drinking.  Even small children when taken to the restaurant with their parents are given something to eat and drink even if it is only a cracker while they are seated in a high chair however they have the experience of eating when their parents are eating. 
 

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The Sequence of the Sacraments of Initiation

1.  Apostolic Constitutions: Roman bathing = washing off and oiling up [one act]
Missionary expansion of the Church in the 4th century
Presbyters ordered to preside at Eucharist and the beginning of Initiation [the water rite]
Oiling becomes separated from bathing
Eventually -- Baptism, then penance, then confirmation, and finally eucharist
Confirmation moved to 8th grade. Penance is in 8th grade
Communion moved to first grade. Penance moved to first grade. Confirmation left behind for "as soon as the bishop can come."
The invention of adolescence [14 was adult]

2.  Eucharist Pope St. Pius X (1835-1914) in 1905 encourages frequent Communion and in 1910 lowers the age for First Communion. The Liturgical Movement. Pius XII and Mediator Dei. See: LLT p xx
 

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History:  Legislation and Guidelines

1905 Dec 22(Pius X) Sacred Congregation of the council. Decree "Sacra Tridentita Synodus" on the daily reception of the Most Holy Eucharist.

1910 Aug 08(Pius X) Sacred Congregation for the Discipline of the Sacraments. Decree "Quam singulari" on the age at which one is to be admitted to first Eucharistic Communion.

1963 Dec 04Sacrosanctum Concilium. "72. The rite and formularies for the sacrament of penance are to be revised so that they more clearly express both the nature and effect of the sacrament."

1966 Feb 17Paul VI. Poenitemini. Apostolic Constitution on Fast and Abstinence (i.e. on Penance and Conversion).

1971 Apr 11General Catechetical Directory. ". . . the Holy See judges it fitting that the practice now in force in the Church of putting Confession ahead of first Communion should be retained" (addendum, #5).

1973 May 24Congregation for the Discipline of the Sacraments and the Congregation for the Clergy issue a joint declaration concerning the first reception of the sacraments of Penance and the Eucharist by children, bringing an end to the practice by which preparation for Penance was put off until after first Communion.

1973 Division of Religious Education -- CCD; United States Catholic Conference. A Study Paper for First Confession. 1973. Washington: Publications Office USCC.

1973 Nov 01Sacred Congregation for Divine Worship. Directory for Masses with Children, Pueros baptizatos.

1979Sharing the light of faith; National Catechetical Directory for Catholics of the United States. 1979. Washington: Publications Office USCC. Publication no. NCD-1. 182 pp.

1983Code of Canon Law. Canons 914, 988, and 989. See also the commentary on Canon 194 by John M. Huels OSM in CLSA Commentary, p 653.

1991NCCB. Lectionary for Masses with Children

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The Directory for Masses With Children

Meaning of a "Directory"
literary genre
see: LLT p 143.
Rich source for General Liturgical Principles
Should children have their own liturgy of the world?
Worship -- more than Catechesis.
Space -- church or gymnasium?

[

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Some Helps for Liturgy with Children

[Taken from the Indianapolis Worship Office's Newsletter --- The Leader's Manual of the new Hymnal for Catholic Students offers fifteen helpful "rules" for liturgies with children. We want to outline the rules here, hoping you will purchase a copy of the Leader's Manual for the full description.]
1.Repetition is not only OK, it is required.
2.Those who minister come from the assembly to serve the assembly.
3.Liturgy is something sung.
4.The liturgy is like a dance: The whole body must be used.
5.Liturgy is handling and gesturing.
6.Liturgy is not about how we feel. It is about who we are and whose we are.
7.Liturgies are filled with processions.
8.The Liturgy has times of silence.
9.Comments should be few, brief, prepared.
10.At eucharist, the word of God is to be a foundation.
11.The Liturgy is celebrated in a fitting place.
12 .The objectives and furnishings of the liturgy are to be worthy.
13.Liturgy does not happen in a void.
14.Liturgy in the school setting is to be in continuity with the parish liturgy.
15.Liturgy with children has dignity, clarity and simplicity.
The observant reader will note that these liturgical rules are applicable equally to children's and adults' liturgies. Should we be all surprised?
 

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Developmental Stages

What do the developmental theories of Piaget and Kohlberg say about the way Eucharist should be celebrated with children?

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First Eucharist

What are the requirements for first Communion?

Children who are baptized after the "Age of Discretion" receive all three sacraments of initiation at the same time: Baptism, Confirmation, Eucharist. See RCIA, Initiation of Children of Catechetical Age. [RCIA]

Blessing for non-communicating children -- At some parishes, when children who have not received their first communion come to communion with their parents, the communion minister gives them a blessing [e.g. placing a hand on the child's head, safe.] What is your pastoral evaluation of this practice? Class of 1986 speaks to the question; It gives the child "something" so they don't feel left out. -- It confuses "Participation in the Eucharist" and "Receiving a Blessing."

Baptism confirmation eucharist -- In right sequence: B C E

General Liturgical Principle: PROGRESSIVE SOLEMNITY. Communion is the culmination liturgically (and therefore, theologically)

Catechesis for Communion: movement from an overly exclusive (and sometimes individual and static) emphasis on eucharistic theology to include initiation meanings and metaphors: initiation into a community, etc. --- When our ancestors long ago lived in caves and hunted the wooly mammoth, eating was clearly a celebration after the cooperative hunt during which our lives depended on one another.

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Infant Communion

Why do we baptize children and then "excommunicate them?"

Why are there more stringent requirements for Eucharist than for Baptism?

Are the arguments for infant baptism (and confirmation) also effective for infant communion?

Ongoing Christian reflection

Christian education: "Christianity, it has been said, is more caught than taught, and the model for learning it is closer to that of an apprenticeship than that of a classroom. In this apprenticeship the accent is on doing the things that Christians do, which makes the practice of withholding from small children the anointing of the Spirit and regular participation at the Eucharistic table all the more unfortunate." (For more information on the eucharist and the forgiveness of sin, see: Leo Hay, Eucharist: A Thanksgiving Celebration, Collegeville: The Liturgical Press, a Michael Glazier Book, 1989, pp 84-91.)

Testimony of Parents
desire at 3 or 4 years
work out an understanding of Mass without communion
no desire for communion and catechist must create it

Practice of other Christians
Episcopalians
Lutherans, Presbyterians, UCC
 

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Excommunication

Early understanding: Excluded from our table fellowship. --- Modern understanding : Mortal sin keeps one from table fellowship by Church discipline and the word "excommunication" becomes a specific ecclesial punishment. (See Mark Searl, "Infant Baptism Reconsidered," Alternative Futures for Worship, Volume 2, Baptism and Confirmation. Liturgical Press: Collegeville, 1987, p 49.)

Effects of excommunication in 1983 Code: The excommunicate is prohibited from:
having any ministerial participation in the celebration of the Eucharist or any other ceremonies of worship;
celebrating the sacraments or sacramentals and receiving the sacraments;
exercising any ecclesiastical offices, ministries, or functions, or placing acts of governance. (See Huels, Pastoral Companion, p 136.)
Excommunications in the 1983 Code: (CLSA Commentary, p 932.)
Apostasy, heresy, or schism
Violation of sacred species
Physical attack on pope
Absolution of an accomplice
Pretended celebration of eucharist or conferral of sacramental absolution by one not a priest (FS/F)
Unauthorized episcopal consecration
Direct violation of confessional seal by confessor
Violation of confessional seal by interpreter and others (FS/F)
Procuring of abortion
 

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Children's Liturgy of the Word

Some say yes; some say no.

Perhaps the practice of a children's Liturgy of the Word at Sunday Mass might serve as an example to help clarify the distinction between liturgy and catechesis. Several years ago when I was pastor of a parish, I thought that our parish practice of providing a special Liturgy of the Word for the children met with a certain amount of success. For me, simply seeing the happy and satisfied looks on the children's faces as they rejoined the adult community was more than adequate compensation for all the trouble and effort their liturgy caused! Today I often encounter a certain amount of opposition and even hostility to the practice. Consequently I was happy to see an article in a recent publication of the United States Catholic Conference recommending the practice. As I read the article "Obeying the Mystery: Worship and the Very Young" by Mary Catherine Berglund (Beginning the Journey, USCC publication No. 527-5) I noticed how the article consistently used "liturgical vocabulary" for the practice; and I came to remember how those who are hostile to the practice usually describe it using "instructional / educational" words. Are the children taken to their own liturgy or taken out for Sunday school? Are they taken to a place of worship or to a classroom? What title is used for the one who leads their liturgy? Who is responsible for preparing this part of the liturgy, the parish liturgist or the DRE? It seems that a children's Liturgy of the Word works best when it is indeed liturgy. (Thomas Richstatter, O.F.M. "The Dialogue between Liturgy and Catechesis," Assembly, 21:1, March 1995, pp 664-665.)

Against: ...

 

The Directory for Masses with Children

Meaning of a "Directory"

literary genre

see:  LLT p 143.

Rich source for General Liturgical Principles

Should children have their own liturgy of the world?

Worship -- more than Catechesis.

Space -- church or gymnasium?

Some Helps for Liturgy with Children

[Taken from the Indianapolis Worship Office's Newsletter — The Leader's Manual of the new Hymnal for Catholic Students offers fifteen helpful "rules" for liturgies with children. We want to outline the rules here, hoping you will purchase a copy of the Leader's Manual for the full description.]

1.Repetition is not only OK, it is required.

2.Those who minister come from the assembly to serve the assembly.

3.Liturgy is something sung.

4.The liturgy is like a dance: The whole body must be used.

5.Liturgy is handling and gesturing.

6.Liturgy is not about how we feel. It is about who we are and whose we are.

7.Liturgies are filled with processions.

8.The Liturgy has times of silence.

9.Comments should be few, brief, prepared.

10.At eucharist, the word of God is to be a foundation.

11.The Liturgy is celebrated in a fitting place.

12 .The objectives and furnishings of the liturgy are to be worthy.

13.Liturgy does not happen in a void.

14.Liturgy in the school setting is to be in continuity with the parish liturgy.

15.Liturgy with children has dignity, clarity and simplicity.

The observant reader will note that these liturgical rules are applicable equally to children's and adults' liturgies. Should we be all surprised?

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Developmental Stages

What do the developmental theories of Piaget and Kohlberg say about the way Eucharist should be celebrated with children?

First Eucharist

What are the requirements for first Communion?

Children who are baptized after the "Age of Discretion" receive all three sacraments of initiation at the same time: Baptism, Confirmation, Eucharist. See RCIA, Initiation of Children of Catechetical Age. [RCIA]

Blessing for non-communicating children -- At some parishes, when children who have not received their first communion come to communion with their parents, the communion minister gives them a blessing [e.g. placing a hand on the child's head, safe.] What is your pastoral evaluation of this practice? Class of 1986 speaks to the question; It gives the child "something" so they don't feel left out. -- It confuses "Participation in the Eucharist" and "Receiving a Blessing."

Baptismconfirmationeucharist -- In right sequence: B C E

General Liturgical Principle: PROGRESSIVE SOLEMNITY. Communion is the culmination liturgically (and therefore, theologically)

Catechesis for Communion: movement from an overly exclusive (and sometimes individual and static) emphasis on eucharistic theology to include initiation meanings and metaphors: initiation into a community, etc. — When our ancestors long ago lived in caves and hunted the wooly mammoth, eating was clearly a celebration after the cooperative hunt during which our lives depended on one another.

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First Celebration of the Sacrament of Reconciliation

Penance is not a rite of initiation

Conversion: turn around, come back

Why do you say to a child who is not in the process of coming toward you (Christian initiation) "Turn around! Come back!"

Development Psychology

mortal sense develops at various stages and rates

sacrament of reconciliation is to be pastorally based on this development

First Reconciliation for children

Code:

Church law only requires penance when there is grave sin.

Do children commit grave sin?

What country has capital punishment for children?

Initiation Sacraments

Sacraments of initiation are: Baptism Confirmation Eucharist

Reconciliation is not a sacrament of initiation

Initiation = coming into. Penance = turn around (metanoia). If a child is coming toward you, do you call to the child "turn around!"

Parents are biggest example. What if parents don't go themselves?

formerly children went with parents

now introduce them into something the parents are not doing?

Directory for Masses with children stresses that we are not just a going through the motions but that we need skills for this active celebration: thanksgiving, words of forgiveness, way to sign, talk, listening

What if: Directory for Masses with Adolescents?

what if: Directory for Reconciliation with Adolescents?

New code - first time children must go before eucharist.

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Infant Communion

Why do we baptize children and then "excommunicate them?"

Why are there more stringent requirements for Eucharist than for Baptism?

Are the arguments for infant baptism (and confirmation) also effective for infant communion?

Ongoing Christian reflection

Christian education: "Christianity, it has been said, is more caught than taught, and the model for learning it is closer to that of an apprenticeship than that of a classroom. In this apprenticeship the accent is on doing the things that Christians do, which makes the practice of withholding from small children the anointing of the Spirit and regular participation at the Eucharistic table all the more unfortunate." (For more information on the eucharist and the forgiveness of sin, see: Leo Hay, Eucharist: A Thanksgiving Celebration, Collegeville: The Liturgical Press, a Michael Glazier Book, 1989, pp 84-91.)

Testimony of Parents

desire at 3 or 4 years

work out an understanding of Mass without communion

no desire for communion and catechist must create it

Practice of other Christians

Episcopalians

Lutherans, Presbyterians, UCC

Excommunication

Early understanding: Excluded from our table fellowship. — Modern understanding : Mortal sin keeps one from table fellowship by Church discipline and the word "excommunication" becomes a specific ecclesial punishment. (See Mark Searl, "Infant Baptism Reconsidered," Alternative Futures for Worship, Volume 2, Baptism and Confirmation. Liturgical Press: Collegeville, 1987, p 49.)

Effects of excommunication in 1983 Code: The excommunicate is prohibited from:

having any ministerial participation in the celebration of the Eucharist or any other ceremonies of worship;

celebrating the sacraments or sacramentals and receiving the sacraments;

exercising any ecclesiastical offices, ministries, or functions, or placing acts of governance. (See Huels, Pastoral Companion, p 136.)

Excommunications in the 1983 Code: (CLSA Commentary, p 932.)

Apostasy, heresy, or schism

Violation of sacred species

Physical attack on pope

Absolution of an accomplice

Pretended celebration of eucharist or conferral of sacramental absolution by one not a priest (FS/F)

Unauthorized episcopal consecration

Direct violation of confessional seal by confessor

Violation of confessional seal by interpreter and others (FS/F)

Procuring of abortion

Children's Liturgy of the Word

Some say yes; some say no.

Perhaps the practice of a children's Liturgy of the Word at Sunday Mass might serve as an example to help clarify the distinction between liturgy and catechesis. Several years ago when I was pastor of a parish, I thought that our parish practice of providing a special Liturgy of the Word for the children met with a certain amount of success. For me, simply seeing the happy and satisfied looks on the children's faces as they rejoined the adult community was more than adequate compensation for all the trouble and effort their liturgy caused! Today I often encounter a certain amount of opposition and even hostility to the practice. Consequently I was happy to see an article in a recent publication of the United States Catholic Conference recommending the practice. As I read the article "Obeying the Mystery: Worship and the Very Young" by Mary Catherine Berglund (Beginning the Journey, USCC publication No. 527-5) I noticed how the article consistently used "liturgical vocabulary" for the practice; and I came to remember how those who are hostile to the practice usually describe it using "instructional / educational" words. Are the children taken to their own liturgy or taken out for Sunday school? Are they taken to a place of worship or to a classroom? What title is used for the one who leads their liturgy? Who is responsible for preparing this part of the liturgy, the parish liturgist or the DRE? It seems that a children's Liturgy of the Word works best when it is indeed liturgy. (Thomas Richstatter, O.F.M. "The Dialogue between Liturgy and Catechesis," Assembly, 21:1, March 1995, pp 664-665.)

Against: ...


 

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To Think About

1. Why is it that only the roman rite denies communion to children?  2. What is meant by the age of digression?  Is the age of digression different for first communion, first reconciliation, confirmation, marriage, mortal sin, excommunication.  3. What is the difference between canonical excommunication and liturgical excommunication (that is not being able to participate in Holy Communion)?  4.  If the church requires maturity of at least 18 years to be excommunicated what does this imply for mortal sin?  5.  Why do infants in the Roman rite be able to "distinguish the bread from ordinary food" when infants of the Eastern rite do not have this requirement?  6.  Why is more required on the part of the recipient with regard to Eucharist than with regard to baptism.  If the faith of the parish supplies for baptism can the faith of the parish supply for first communion?  7.  If the law were to be changed to permit infants communion what would this imply for confirmation? for first reconciliation?

2.  What does the GIRM say about Eucharist as a sacrament of initiation.

3.  What does Eucharist as the completion of initiation imply for the celebration of Confirmation?

4.  Baptism, Confirmation, and Eucharist are the sacraments of Initiation. Show how this is true by the principle "Lex Orandi."

5.  Can you find common elements in the celebration of Baptism, Confirmation, and Eucharist which you foresee will present all the sacraments? From what we have studied thus far, what is theologically common to all seven sacraments?

6.  What is excommunication?

7.  State five "freedoms" that you learned from reading the Directory for Masses with Children---that is, five instances where the directory shows how the norms or rubrics in GRIM are to be used with pastoral sensitivity so that their purpose can be achieved for children.

8.  Give several examples of how the Directory for masses with Children uses "General Principles / Norms / Pastoral Sensitivity" to apply the norms of the GIRM to the pastoral situation of children.

9.  Read The Directory for Masses with Children. Discover there the General Liturgical Principles. In your imagination apply them to typical parish situations. This directory is written for children, not adolescents. There is no Directory for Masses with Adolescents. But, if you were the CDWDS and were writing one, what would it look like? Compose three articles for this new directory for adolescents, and give them the same numbers the corresponding principle in the directory for children.

10.  What is the proper age for First Reconciliation?

11.  When should converts celebrate First Reconciliation?

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Copyright: Tom Richstatter, Franciscan Province of St. John the Baptist, Cincinnati Ohio, Order of Friars Minor. All Rights Reserved.  This page was created by Fr. Thomas Richstatter, O.F.M.  Every effort has been, and is being made, to acknowledge sources when the ideas are not my own.  Any failure to comply with the United States Copyright Act (Title 17, United States Code) will be corrected immediately should I become aware of it.  This site was updated on 03/20/15 .  Your comments on this site are welcome at trichstatter@franciscan.org