Islam

Chapter u63 History of Islam

Preliminary Questions

Bibliography

1. Apostolic [0-399]

2. Patristic [400-799] 

3. Early Medieval [800-1199]

 

4. Medieval [1200-1299]

5. Late Medieval [1300-1499]

6. Reformation [1500-1699]

7. After Trent [1700-1899]

8. Before Vatican II [1900-1959]

9. Vatican II [1960-1975]

10. After Vatican II [1975-2050]

Islam Today in the USA

To Think About

For an explanation of the ten divisions of the "ten finger history grid" see Chapter d21 Overview of the History of the Liturgy 
http://www.tomrichstatter.org/dDocuments/d20overv.htm#Ten Finger History Explanation

Preliminary Observations

 

 

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Bibliography

 History of Religion in 90 Seconds    (If link does not open, simply Google "history of religion")

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1. Apostolic [0-399] 

30 Death of Jesus
30-60 Preaching of Peter and Paul
40 I THESSALONIANS -- II THESSALONIANS
48 GALATIANS -- I CORINTHIANS -- II CORINTHIANS -- ROMANS
50 "Q" written
56? Death of Paul (or 60?)
60 PHILIPPIANS -- PHILEMON -- Gospel of Thomas. Death of Peter
69 Ignatius become bishop of Antioch
69 Clement of Rome (69-70? 96?)
70 Major revolt -- fall of Jerusalem -- Titus destroyed the temple -- Judaism founded
70 MARK -- LETTER TO THE HEBREWS -- Epistle of (Pseudo-) Barnabas (70-135?)
85 COLOSSIANS -- EPHESIANS
90 Council of Jamnia -- MATTHEW -- LUKE/ACTS -- JOHN -- I PETER.
95? I II III JOHN
100 I TIMOTHY -- II TIMOTHY -- TITUS -- JOHN Chapter 21 -- REVELATION
105 Didache -- II PETER
107 Ignatius of Antioch written
120 Shepherd Hermes
125 Earliest surviving gospel fragments P52
150 Polycarp of Smyrna
200 Earliest surviving fragments of Matthew and Luke
300 Codex Sinaiticus -- earliest surviving complete New Testament (discovered 1844)
313 Edict of Constantine

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2. Patristic [400-799]

AD 570 -- Mohammad was born in Mecca.

AD 610/611 -- Mohammad's first religious revelations. Few people are told of them.

AD 613 -- Mohammad is speaking more publicly of his revelations.

AD 619 -- Mohammad and his followers face a bleak future as the great merchants intensify opposition to his mission.

AD 620 -- Men from Medina meet Mohammad at the pilgrimage and moot the idea of his going to Medina.

AD 621 -- The first Pledge of Aqaba when Medinese clan leaders at the pilgrimage declare themselves ready to accept Mohammad as the Prophet.

AD 621 -- The second Pledge of Aqaba when Medinese pilgrims swear to fight for Mohammad.

AD 622 (16 July)  AH 1  [AH = Anno Hegirae = year of the Hijra] -- Mohammad's emigration [Hegira] from Mecca and the first day of the new Islamic calendar. 

Thursday, October 3, 2013 AD is the 8th day of the 12th month, 1434 AH.  The current Islamic year is 1434 AH.  While 1391 years since the Hegira have passed in our calendar years, (2013 minus 622 = 1391) 1432 years have passed in the Islamic calendar because the lunar year is consistently shorter (by about 11 days) than the tropical (sun) year used by the Christian calendar.

AD 622 (24 September)   [AH 1] -- Mohammad and Abu Bakr reach Medina having eluded the Meccans by hiding in a cave.

AD 624 (March)  [AH 3]  -- The battle of Bedr.  Mohammad's first great political and religious success against the Meccans.

AD 625 (March)  [AH 4  -- Battle of Uhud where the Meccans fail to completely avenge the defeat of Bedr but leave the Moslems dismayed.

AD 628 (Spring)   [AH 7] -- Mohammad tries to make the lesser pilgrimage to Mecca. Meccans block his way but will negotiate with him.

AD 630 (January)   [AH 9] -- Mohammad marches on Mecca after a breach in the truce made with Mecca.  He enters the city in triumph.

AD 632 (March)   [AH 11] -- Mohammad leads the farewell pilgrimage to Mecca.  Already in ill health, he dies on 8th of June 632  (at age 62/63)

AD 713-801 Rabi'a al-Adawiyya   Mystic of "Pure Love of God"    Born in a poor home, Rabi'a was stolen as a child and sold as a slave.  Once freed, she withdrew to the desert south of Iraq and then to Basra where disciples gathered around her.  She taught "the pure love of God."   "One day Rabi'a went out into the streets of the town with a jug of water in one hand and a flaming torch in the other.  'Where are you going?' someone asked her.  'I am going to quench hell and set fire to paradise so that God may be adored and loved for himself and not for his rewards.' " [Jomier, How to Understand Islam, p 93] 


Muhammad, the Natural Successor to Christ

See:  Video:  "Muhammad, the Natural Successor to Christ,"  lecture by Ahmad Deeat. Islamic Audio Visual Center, VT 65-010.  
Available on YouTube at   http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZH42wbdMAxQ  

Keep in mind:
1.  The parable of Jacob the Taylor   "The one who knows only one religion knows none." 
2.  Translations -- "Translators are Traitors"  [Quran is the very words spoken by the angel Gabriel, the very words God spoke, no translation.]
3.  How would we read the bible 50 years ago, before "modern" biblical scholarship was accepted?
4.  How "unbiased" are our news sources?

Quran 61:6  Jesus, the son of Mary, said, "O children of Israel, indeed I am the messenger of Allah to you confirming what came before me of the Torah and bringing good tidings of a messenger to come after me, whose name is Ahmad [another name for Muhammad]." But when he came to them with clear evidences, they said, "This is obvious magic."

Quran  2:111  And they say, "None will enter Paradise except one who is a Jew or a Christian." That is [merely] their wishful thinking, Say, "Produce your proof, if you should be truthful."

Matthew 10:5-6 NRSV   These twelve Jesus sent out with the following instructions: "Go nowhere among the Gentiles, and enter no town of the Samaritans,  but go rather to the lost sheep of the house of Israel.

Matthew 15:21-26 NRSV   Just then a Canaanite woman from that region came out and started shouting, "Have mercy on me, Lord, Son of David; my daughter is tormented by a demon."   But he did not answer her at all. And his disciples came and urged him, saying, "Send her away, for she keeps shouting after us."  He answered, "I was sent only to the lost sheep of the house of Israel."   But she came and knelt before him, saying, "Lord, help me."   He answered, "It is not fair to take the children's food and throw it to the dogs." 

Matthew 7:6 NAB  Do not give what is holy to dogs, or throw your pearls before swine.

John 14:16 NRSV [Jesus said:]  I will ask the Father, and he will give you another Advocate, [paraclete - the prophet - Muhammad]  to be with you forever.
John 14:26 NRSV  But the Advocate, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, will teach you everything, and remind you of all that I have said to you. 
John 16:7 NRSV  It is to your advantage that I go away, for if I do not go away, the Advocate will not come to you; but if I go, I will send him to you.

Many Muslim writers argue that "another Paraclete" refers to Muhammad.   If the original Greek word was pariklytos [famed, illustrious, praiseworthy -- in Arabic, Ahmad, which is another name for Muhammad
John 14:16 [Jesus said:]  I will ask the Father, and he will give you Muhammad to be with you forever.
John 14:26 But  Muhammad whom the Father will send in my name, will teach you everything, and remind you of all that I have said to you. 
John 16:7 It is to your advantage that I go away, for if I do not go away, Muhammad will not come to you; but if I go, I will send him to you.
These texts cannot refer to the Holy Spirit because the Holy Spirit was present already at the time of the birth of John the Baptist.  "When Elizabeth heard Mary's greeting, the child leaped in her womb. And Elizabeth was filled with the Holy Spirit."  (Luke 1:41 NRSV)

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Mohammad's Wives    When thinking of Mohammad having "many wives" it is important to distinguish "many wives" from the way "many wives" is frequently used in contemporary reports in the news regarding religious cults involving polygamy.   "In Arabian culture, marriage was generally contracted in accordance with the larger needs of the tribe and was based on the need to form alliances within the tribe and with other tribes. Virginity at the time of marriage was emphasized as a tribal honor. Watt states that all of Muhammad's marriages had the political aspect of strengthening friendly relationships and were based on the Arabian custom. Esposito points out that some of Muhammad's marriages were aimed at providing a livelihood for widows. Francis Edwards Peters says that it is hard to make generalizations about Muhammad's marriages: many of them were political, some compassionate, and some perhaps affairs of the heart." (wikipedia.org   Muhammad's wives) 

 

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3. Early Medieval [800-1199]

973 - 1048 Abu Rayhan Biruni  Persian mathematician, physicist, scholar, encyclopedist, philosopher, astronomer, astrologer, traveler, historian, pharmacist, and teacher.  He was a colleague of Ibn Sina.  Traveled to India, learned Indian languages, and studied the religion and philosophy of its people; he also knew Greek and Sanskrit and possibly also Syriac and Berber.  At the age of 17 he could calculate the latitude of cities using the maximum altitude of the sun.  By the age of 22, he had written several short works, including a study of map projections and a method for projecting a hemisphere on a plane.  By age 27 he had written books on the astrolabe, the decimal system, astrology, and history.  He refined the ancient estimate of the Earth's radius from approximately 6,314 km (measured by Eratosthenes in 240 AD) to 6,339.6 km. This feat was not repeated or surpassed in the Western world until the sixteenth century!  (For the complete article see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Al-Biruni )

980 [370 AH] -- 1037  Avicenna   Ibn Sina was a Persian physician, philosopher, and scientist born in Uzbekistan (then Persia) in 980 and died in 1037 in Iran.  The author of 450 books, he was one of the most famous scientists of all times.   An exceptional intellect, he had memorized the entire Qur'an by the age of 7 and a great deal of Persian poetry as well.  Next he studied Aristotle -- he read the Metaphysics more than 40 times.  At 16 he turned to medicine and achieved full status as a physician at age 18.   His 14 volume The Canon of Medicine was used as the standard medical text in Western Europe for seven centuries.  His metaphysical works influenced the scholastic philosophers.  (For the complete article see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avicenna )

1126 - 1198  Averroes  Ibn Rushd, known as Averroes was an Arab philosopher, physician, lawyer, and mathematician, born in Cordoba, Spain in 1126 and died in Marrakesh, Morocco in 1198.  Averroes is most famous for his translations and commentaries of Aristotle's works, which had been mostly forgotten in the West.  Before only a few translated works of Aristotle existed in Latin Europe, and they were not studied much or given much credence by monastic scholars. It was through the Latin translations of Averroes's work beginning in the 12th century that the legacy of Aristotle was recovered in the West.  Famous scholastics such as Aquinas believed him to be so important they did not refer to him by name, simply calling him "The Commentator" and calling Aristotle "The Philosopher."   Averroes also greatly influenced philosophy in the Islamic world.   (For the complete article see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Averroes )

1135-1204   Moses Maimonides a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher.  Born in Cordoba, Spain in 1135, he studied in Morocco, and then moved to Egypt where he was doctor of the Grand Vizier Alfadhil and also possibly the doctor of Sultan Saladin of  Egypt.  Educated by reading the works of Arab Muslim philosophers he acquired an intimate acquaintance with the doctrines of Aristotle.  Maimonides exerted an important influence on the Scholastic philosophers, especially on Albert the Great, Thomas Aquinas, and Duns Scotus.   (For the complete article see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maimonides )

1182-1226 Francis of Assisi

1187  Fall of Christian Jerusalem

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4. Medieval [1200-1299]

1193 - 1280 Albert the Great

1210  Francis of Assisi visits the Sultan Al-Kamil of Egypt in Damietta

1225 - 1274 Thomas Aquinas

1266 - 1308 John Duns Scotus

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5. Late Medieval [1300-1499]

1342 The king and queen of Naples "ransomed" the Holy Sepulcher and the Holy See entrusted its care and religious services to the Franciscan Custody of the Holy Land.

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6. Reformation [1500-1699]

1516  Ottoman Empire conquers Jerusalem

1571  Battle of Lepanto  The naval battle, fought on October 7, 1571 in which the Christian League created chiefly by the efforts of Pius V between Venice and Spain, with help from the Papal states and Genoa, decisively beat the Turks, who were threatening the Western. Lepanto, on the northern entrance to the Gulf of Corinth, is the ancient Naupactos.  In thanksgiving for the victory over the Turks (which was attributed to saying the Rosary), the Pope instituted a special feast of Our Lady on October 7, which since 1573 has been kept as the Feast of the Rosary.  From a local feast it was made universal by Clement IX after another victory over Islam in 1716, near Belgrade.  In 1716 it was assigned to the first Sunday of October, but in 1913 it was transferred to October 7.

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7. After Trent [1700-1899]

 

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8. Before Vatican II [1900-1959]

 

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9. Vatican II [1960-1975]

 1965 October 28  Second Vatican Council. Declaration on the Relationship of the Church to Non-Christian Religions  Nostra Aetate

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10. After Vatican II [1975-2050]

 

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Islam Today in the USA

For statistics on Islam in the USA today see  http://www.pluralism.org/resources/statistics/tradition.php#Islam

 

 

U.S. Muslims Divided Over America
Results of First Comprehensive Survey Unveiled
WASHINGTON, D.C., APR. 26, 2001

[The following is reported from Zenit]  The More than one in four U.S. Muslims strongly believes that "America is an immoral, corrupt society," a new poll shows. The poll, the first comprehensive survey of the faith's presence in the United States, found that American Muslims comprise are a growing community, with 1,209 mosques nationwide, according to an Associated Press report. The results were released here today.

There has been disagreement over U.S. Muslim numbers, and reliable figures were scarce. AP said the new study, led by professor Ihsan Bagby of Shaw University in Raleigh, North Carolina, offers these figures:

--6 million to 7 million is a reasonable estimate for Americans who would consider themselves ethnic Muslims. (That compares with an ethnic count of 6.06 million for U.S. Jews.)

--2 million Muslims are religiously involved to varying degrees with local mosques, for example by attending the two yearly Eids (festivals). That projection was based on a survey of 416 mosque leaders.

--411,000 Muslims, 78% of them men, nationally attend the Friday Jum'ah prayers in an average week, judging from mosque leaders' reports.

The statistics excluded Louis Farrakhan's Nation of Islam, the Ahmaddiya movement and other groups that mainstream Islam has regarded as heterodox, Bagby said.

About 87% of the local mosques in the survey were founded since 1970.

The survey is the latest sign of the demographic changes remaking the United States. Recent U.S. Census figures showed that Hispanics may have surpassed blacks as the largest minority.

Historically, black Americans have operated their own mosques and immigrants' mosques were divided by national origin. The new survey showed blacks remain dominant in 27% of mosques, South Asian immigrants in 28% and Arab-Americans in 15%. The others were more pluralistic. "Our mosques are much more diverse than we think," Bagby said, "though falling short of Islam's multiracial ideal."

"Muslims are very divided on how they view America," Bagby said. Heavy majorities of mosque leaders strongly agreed that believers can learn from the nation's technological advances and should be involved in politics and American institutions.

However, when asked whether America "is an example of freedom and democracy that we can learn from," only 35% strongly agreed. Some 28% strongly agreed that "America is an immoral, corrupt society," and 15% strongly agreed that "American society is hostile to Islam."

Among other highlights of the survey:

--Among regular Muslim worshippers, 47% were reported to be 35 or younger.

--Among the regulars, 29% were converts to Islam. Among 19,700 annual converts, an estimated 14,000 were black and 13,000 were men.

--There were no paid full-time employees at 55% of mosques, and 45% had no paid staff even on a part-time basis. The typical imam or other mosque leader is a part-time volunteer who makes a living elsewhere.

--21% said their mosques maintain a literal interpretation of the faith drawn directly from the Koran and Sunnah (practices of the Prophet Mohammed); 71% said they take into account the purposes of revelations in light of "modern circumstances."  The rest followed other Muslim traditions or did not respond.

The survey's sampling margin of error was 5 percentage points.

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To Think About

 

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Copyright: Tom Richstatter.  All Rights Reserved.  This page was created by Fr. Thomas Richstatter, O.F.M.  Every effort has been, and is being made to acknowledge sources when the ideas are not my own.  Any failure to comply with the United States Copyright Act (Title 17, United States Code) will be corrected immediately should I become aware of it. This site was updated on 10/24/13 .  Your comments on this site are welcome at trichstatter@franciscan.org